Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
Beiträge zur Südasienforschung
[Contributions to South Asian Studies]

Band [nos.] 101 - 150

Südasien-Institut, Universität Heidelberg
[South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University]

Stuttgart: Steiner
ISSN 0170-3137
Abbreviation: BSAF

101102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150

101 Zur Relevanz mikroökonomischer Theorie für die Analyse des ökonomischen Verhaltens der Wirtschaftssubjekte in Agrarsektoren von Entwicklungsländern [On the relevance of micro-economic theory for analysing the economic behaviour in the agricultural sectors of developing countries] / von [by] Rainer Marggraf. - 1985. IX, 295 p. ISBN 3-51504513-9
8 graphs, English summary pp. 291-295, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 263-290.
This study differs from most other monographs on agricultural economics in two ways : On the one hand, the author theoretically examines in which way micro-economic theory is suitable to study economic phenomena in developing countries. When understanding economics as equifunctional systems theory, economic analyses of the agricultural sectors of developing countries are essential for practical application. On the other hand, modern micro-theory is rigorously applied to agricultural problems in developing countries. The following problems relevant to politics are analysed, here : the price reaction of agricultural production, the economic aspects of property rights and property structures, and the distribution effects of technical progress in agriculture.

102 Zur Methodik kosten-nutzen-analytischer Bewertung verteilungsorientierter Preispolitik : mit empirischen Untersuchungen zur Agrarpreispolitik Thailands und der Europäischen Gemeinschaft [On the methodics of cost-benefit-analyses of a distribution-oriented price policy] / von [by] Lothar Oberländer. - 1985. XV, 320 p. ISBN 3-515-04490-6
19 Schaubilder [graphs], 41 Übersichten [tables], English summary pp. 321 to 328, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 304-318, Statistische Quellen [statistical sources] pp. 319-320.
In this study, the author presents a practicable method to determine the distribution and welfare effects of political interventions regarding agricultural prices. Then, this method is applied to appraise the agricultural price policy of a developing country and to deduct in which way efficient agricultural price policy systems should be established. This book is a valuable reading material for those concerned with problems of intervention through agricultural price policies both in developing and industrial countries.

103 Zentrale Gewalt in Nager (Karakorum) : politische Organisationsformen, ideologische Begründungen des Königtums und Veränderungen in der Moderne [Central power in Nager (Karakorum) : forms of political organization, ideological bases of the kingdom and changes in modern times] / von [by] Jürgen Frembgen. - 1985. XII, 441 p. ISBN 3-515-04588-0
Anhang 1 : Liste der Herrscher von Nager (Dynastie der Moghlokuts) [Appendix 1 : List of the rulers of Nager (The dynasty of the Moghlokuts)] pp. 213-214, Anhang 2 [Appendix 2] : Liste der Maße und Gewichte [List of weights and measures] pp. 215-216, Liste der Informanten [list of informants] pp. 217-218, Liste der Kartenskizzen [list of sketch maps] p. 219, Karten [maps] pp. 220-223, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 224-236, English summary pp. 237-241, 17 Fotos [photographs] am Ende des Bandes [at the end of the volume].
Hitherto, mainly political systems prevailing in Africa and Polynesia have been examined by scholars of political anthropology. The existence of virtually a cluster of individual kingdoms in the mountainous northwest corner of the Indian Subcontinent, however, has been neglected for a long time. The author of this study wants to acquaint the reader with the political system of one of the least known regions of North Pakistan, i.e. Nager (Karakorum). The ethnographic material was collected during several field trips since 1981. In his description and analysis of the sacral kingdom of Nager, he applies historical, functional-structural and processual approaches. In part I, the author extensively deals with research work carried out on Nager so far and with sources available as well as with his own field research. He then presents an ethnographic survey before entering into the main part of the book : the historical development and fundamentals of the social organisation; description and analysis of the king's and his courtiers' positions, kinship relations, courtlife, administration, taxation, bonded labour, legislature, jurisdiction, present situation. This description is rounded off by comparing Nager with other king- doms in North Pakistan. The study ends with royal chronologies, a list of weights and measures, the names of the author's informants, sketch maps, a bibliography, an English summary and photographs.

104 Regionale Tradition in Südasien [Regional traditions in South Asia]/ herausgegeben von [edited by] Hermann Kulke und [and] Dietmar Rothermund. - 1985. XXIV, 256 p. ISBN 3-515-04519-8
Index pp. 245-256.
This volume contains papers presented at a symposium on "Regional traditions in South Asia" held in Heidelberg in February, 1983. All papers were presented in German - with a summary in English.
From the table of contents :
H[ermann] Kulke und [and] D[ietmar] Rothermund : Regionale Tradition und Regionalismus in Südasien : Versuch einer Einführung in die Thematik [Region, regional tradition and regionalism in South Asia : an attempt at an introduction into the subject] pp. IX-XXIV.
A. Wezler : Dharma und [and] Deadharma pp. 1-20, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 18-21, English summary pp. 21-22.
H[einrich] von Stietencron : Brahmanen als Integratoren und Interpreten von Regionaltraditionen [The role of the Brahmins as integrators and interpreters of regional tradition] pp. 23-35, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 33-34, English summary p. 35.
M. Witzel : Regionale und überregionale Faktoren in der Entwicklung vedischer Brahmanengruppen im Mittelalter (Materialien zu den vedischen Schulen, 5) [Regional and supra-regional factors in the development of various groups and communities of Vedic Brahmins (Materials on Vedic schools, 5)] pp. 37-76, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 65-74, English summary pp. 75-76.
Hermann Kulke : Die frühmittelalterlichen Regionalreiche : ihre Struktur und Rolle im Prozess staatlicher Entwicklung Indiens [Early medieval regional kingdoms : their structure and their rôle in the process of state development in India] pp. 77-114, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 108-113, English summary pp. 113 to 114.
Bernhard Kölver : Erstarkende Staatsgewalt und Hinduisierung : neues Material aus Nepal [Increasing state power and Hinduisation : new material from Nepal] pp. 115-128, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 126-127, English summary pp. 127-128.
Günther D. Sontheimer : Cturvarya, Bhakti und der Aufstieg von Volkskulten in Maharashtra : Religionsgeschichtliche Skizze einer Region [Cturvarya, bhakti and the rise of folk cultures in Maharahstra : historical and religious outline of a region] pp. 129-146, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 144-147, English summary pp. 147-148.
Jakob Rösel : Sakralstädte als Kristallisatoren regionaler Tradition : das Beispiel der indischen Tempel- und Pilgerstadt Puri [Sacred cities as catalysts of regional tradition : the case of the Indian temple and pilgrimage town of Puri] pp. 149-170, Amerkungen [notes] pp. 167-169, English summary p. 170.
Georg Pfeffer : Verwandtschaftssysteme der südasiatischen Regionen im Vergleich [Kinship systems of South Asian regions : a comparative study] pp. 171-190, Literatur [bibliography] pp. 188-189, English summary p. 190.
Dagmar Gräfin Bernstorff : Region als politisches Bewusstsein : intraregionale soziale und politische Konflikte am Beispiel des Bundeslandes Andhra Pradesh [Intra-regional social and political conflicts : the case of Andhra Pradesh] pp. 191-204, Anmerkungen [notes] p. 203, English summary pp. 203-204.
Dietmar Rothermund : Regionale Differenzierung in Indien : britische Herrschaft, Freiheitskampt und Föderalismus [Regional differentiation in India : British rule, the fight for freedom and federalism] pp. 205-218, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 216-217, English summary pp. [217-218].
Jürgen Lütt : Die regionalen Wurzeln der Hindu Mahasabha [The Hindu Mahasabha : regional roots of a nationalist movement] pp. 219-233, Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 231-232, English summary [p. 233].
Summary of the discussions pp. 235-243.
Index pp. 245-256.

105 Law and society East and West : dharma, li and nomos, their contribution to thought and to life / by Reinhard May. - 1985. 251 p. ISBN 3-51504537-6
Glossary : I. India (Skt.) pp. 220-222, II. China pp. 221-225, Chinese characters' index p. 226, bibliography pp. 227-250.
This enquiry examines comparatively different conceptions of law and society in (Hindu) India, China, and ancient Europe. Three indigenous principles, the basic topoi of dharma, li and nomos are investigated and juxtaposed. They represent significant world conceptions, a deeper understanding of which is a prerequisite for an appropriate treatment of human affairs in society. There is a wide-spread ignorance of Hindu jurisprudence, and thus dharma takes up a good part of the work. Considerable care is taken to focus on the Chinese li, followed by a description of the ancient Greek topos of nomos. As implicit and explicit comparisons reveal, an often postulated legal world-order needs serious revision from a trans-Occidental perspective.

106 Darul-Islam : Kartosuwirjos Kampf um einen islamischen Staat Indonesien [Darul-Islam : Kartosowirjo's fight for an Islamic state of Indonesia] / von [by] Holk H. Dengel. - 1986. VIII, 255 p. ISBN 3-515-04784-0
Anhang I : Aufstellung der Kommuniqués, Bestimmungen, Erklärungen sowie der politischen Manifeste des Negara Islam Indonesia [,] die im Namen Kartosuwirjos veröffentlicht wurden [Appendix I : List of communiqués, regulations, declarations, and the political manifestos published by Negara Islam Indonesia in the name of Kartosuwirjo] pp. 184-186, Anhang II : Decknamen von Befehlshabern der Tentara Islam Indonesia (TII) sowie Führern der Darul-Islam-Bewegung und des Negara Islam Indonesia (NII) [Appendix II : Noms de guerre of the commanders of Tentara Islam Indonesia (TII) and leaders of the Darul Islam Movement and of the Negara Islam Indonesia (NII)] pp. 187 to 188, Anhang III : Dokumente [Appendix III : Documents] p. 189-193, Biographische Daten [biographical data] pp. 194-195, Glossar [glossary] pp. 196 to 205, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 206-236, Liste der InterviewPartner und Datum des Interviews [list of interview partners and date of the interview] p. 236, Photographischer Anhang [appendix of photographs] pp. 237-243, 3 Karten [3 maps] pp. 244-246, English summary pp. 247-255.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, along with the emergence of nationalist ideas, Islam paved the way for nationalism in Indonesia and became the basis of the first strong nationalist movement in Indonesia, i.e. Sarikat Islam. At that stage already, Islamic nationalists called for an Islamic state; the Masjumi politician Kartosuwirjo, during the confusions of the Indonesian revolution, tried to realize his version of an Islamic state by setting up the Darul Islam Movement and proclaiming Negara Islam Indonesia, the "Islamic State of Indonesia" in West Java in 1949. This study discusses the developments leading to Negara Islam Indonesia and, finally, to its end, the conflict between Islamic and secular nationalists on the religious foundations of an Indonesian state, and the question of an alleged support of Darul Islam by the Dutch.

107 Akaparamcuvari : a goddess of Tamilnadu; her myths and cult / by Eveline Meyer. - 1986. XII, 329 p. ISBN 3-515-04702-6
Appendix : Songs of the goddess in Tamil pp. 282-293, maps : I. Distribution of myths and mayakkoai p. 294, II. Location of temples p. 295, List of abbreviations : Akaamma temples in Tamilnadu pp. 296-297, List of informants pp. 298-300, Akalamma-temples in Tamilnadu according to Census of India (1961) pp. 301-307, bibliography pp. 308-320, index pp. 321-329, 25 photopraphs pp. 330-339.
This book presents a comprehensive study of the cult and myths around a Tamil Nadu goddess. Based on her field research in all districts of Tamil Nadu, the authoress describes the characteristics and varieties of the cult of the goddess Akaparamcuvari who is mainly worshipped by the clans of the inland fishers (but also by clans of other castes). The myths collected show in which way folk religion and high religion are united in the goddess's image who, simultaneously, is both iva's spouse and a pure virgin. This image is reflected in the rituals of her annual festival. The main ritual which is taking place on the burning ghat, is, above all, directed towards fertility and healing. The rituals change through the influence of high religion, i.e. blood sacrifices are replaced by pure, non-animal, sacrifices, or they are presented to a deputy of the goddess. The cult reveals the goddess's kinship with the spirits (bhtas) and other gods of the burning ground (Kl, Cuaaimtan).

108 Die Vabalija in Andhra Pradesh und in Orissa : Aspekte der wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Organisation einer maritimen Gesellschaft [The Vabalija in Andhra Pradesh and in Orissa : aspects of the economic and social organisation of a maritime society] / von [by] Elisabeth Schömbucher. - 1986. IX, 253 p. ISBN 3-515-04835-9
Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 225-237, Glossar [glossary] pp. 238 to 243, Verwandtschaftstermini [kinship terminology] p. 244, English summary pp. 245-253.
This study presents and analyses different aspects of the social organisation of the Vabalija in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. In particular, the general requirements of an adaptation to a maritime environment are identified, especially as to how these might lead to specific forms and institutions in the social organisation of the Vabalija in particular and coastal fishermen in general. The authoress describes the area of her field studies, the economic organisation of the Vabalija, their kinship relations, their political organisation, their rituals and ritual specialists, their egalitarian structure, their integration into the Indian society and their maritime orientation.

109 Guru-iya-sambandha  : das Meister-Schüler-Verhältnis im traditionellen und modernen Hinduismus [Guru-iya-sambandha : the master-disciple relationship in traditional and modern Hindusism] / von [by] Ralph Marc Steinmann. - 1986. XI, 312 p. ISBN 3-515-04851-0
Anhang [Appendix] A : Das Guru-Stotra [The guru-stotra] pp. 248-251, Anhang [Appendix] B : Das cryalakaam [The cryalakaam] p. 252, Abkürzungsverzeichnis [list of abbreviations] pp. 253-254, Bibliographie [bibliography] pp. 255-273, English summary pp. 274-291, Register [index] pp. 292 to 312, 3 photographs.
The present study offers a contribution to the master-disciple relationship from the viewpoint of traditional and modern Hinduism. Considering the historical, psychological, and philosophical aspects of the soteriologically oriented relationship in general and of its expression in the guru-iya-sambandha of Hinduism, a very comprehensive introduction is presented, here. Based on a broad historic outline, this study for the first time presents a main typology, a functional definition, and a partial hermeneutic evaluation of the subject. In accordance with the emphasis on otherworldly or soteriological forms of the guru-iya relationship, special prominence is given to the ascetic and somewhat heretic figure of the inner and (or) outer renouncer or sanys. Nevertheless, a balance has been kept between the Pan-Indian and the regional traditions, or between the "great", Sanskritic, and the "little", particularly Tamil, traditions as well as between the devotional bhakti tradition and the gnostic jna tradition, i.e. between Vaiava and aiva cults and sects. Only a selective but representative description is given, the inclusion of exceptional features aims at phenomenological and typological completeness. Adhering to the principles of Indology and the History of Religions, sociological and psychological, economic and ecological or geographical aspects as well as iconographic and iconological viewpoints have also been included.

110 Herrschaft und Verwaltung im östlichen Indien unter den späten Gagas, ca. 1038-1434 [Rule and administration in eastern India under the later Gagas, ca. 1038-1434] / von [by] Shishir Kumar Panda. - 1986. III, 184 p.
ISBN 3-51504861-8
Anmerkungen pp. 158-160, Bibliographie [bibliography] pp. 161-171, Abkürzungen [abbreviations] pp. 172, Karte (am Ende des Bandes] [map (at the end of the volume)] : Districts of Orissa, English summary and conclusion pp. 173-184.
This book focuses on the administration of the Gaga empire, which covered an area in eastern India stretching from the Hooghly to the Godavari river during the 12th till 15th century. The author especially points out how the Gagas with varying success tried to establish a central administration. In this context, he gives special attention to the "Nyakara system" in Kaliga; this system was hitherto only known to have existed in the Vijayanagara kingdom. Thus, the present work is an important contribution to the discussion on state formation in pre-modern India.

111 Tension over the Farakka Barrage : a techno-political tangle in South Asia / [by] Khurshida Begum. - 1988. X, 279 p. ISBN 3-515-05064-7
28 figures, 2 projections, 1 graph, 25 tables, glossary p. XI, bibliography pp. 269-276, index pp. 277-279.
The Farakka Barrage has been a major source of conflict between India and Bangladesh. It enables India to divert water into the Hugli so as to prevent the silting up of the port of Calcutta. Bangladesh claims an adequate share of the Ganges water and no permanent agreement has been arrived at so far. This is the first comprehensive study of the historical background of the dispute. It also traces the phases of the dispute in recent times in the context of the complex relationship between India and Bangladesh. Technical and political problems are discussed with equal competence and attention to crucial details.
Appendix A : National Water Grid-Plan of K. L. Rao pp. 252-255.
Appendix B : Statute of the Indo-Bangladesh Joint Rivers Commission pp. 255-256.
Appendix C : Chronological statement of meetings between Bangladesh & India on Ganges water disputes pp. 256-258.
Appendix D (a) : Rice production by district compared with claimed losses p. 259.
Appendix D (b) : Summary of the special studies estimate of lost agricultural production in South-West Bangladesh due to upstream diversion in 1976 pp. 259-260.
Appendix D (c) : Lost rice output by district and cause 1975-76 p. 260. Appendix E : Summary of the area affected in South-West Bangladesh due to upstream diversion in 1976 p. 261.
Appendix F : Agreement between the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Government of the Republic of India on sharing of the Ganges waters at Farakka and on augmenting its flows pp. 262-268.
Side letter to the agreement : 1 p. 267.
Side letter to the agreement : 2 pp. 267-268.

112 Developments in Asia : economic, political and cultural aspects / edited by Christine Effenberg. - 1987. [VII], 545 p. ISBN 3-515-05049-3
Contents :
Martin Kaiser : Development in Asia? : an empirical approach pp. 1-29, 4 diagrams, 1 table, star charts of selected countries pp. 22-24, references pp. 25 to 27, bibliography pp. 28-29.
Norbert Wagner : Regional economic cooperation in South Asia : ASEAN : a model for SAARC?) pp. 30-68, 7 tables, references pp. 61-65, bibliography pp. 66-68.
Wolfgang Veit : Improving capital supply to Asian developing countries : South-South cooperation and financial integration pp. 69-119, 1 fig., 6 tables, references pp. 114-116, bibliography pp. 117-119.
Narayan Khadka : Politics and economic development : the case of Nepal pp. 120-168, 1 table, 1 fig., references pp. 161-166, bibliography pp. 167-168.
Jogishwar Singh : Sikh attitude towards obedience to political authority : some implications pp. 169-218, references pp. 205-215, bibliography pp. 216-218.
Christine Effenberg : Sikhs and India : the tragedy of Khalistan pp. 219-243, map of India p. 220, references pp. 237-241, bibliography pp. 242-243..
Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam : Dravidian parties in modern Tamilnadu : their strength and significance pp. 244-273, references pp. 269-272, bibliography p. 273.
Eva-Maria Schaarschmidt-Kohl : Indonesian Trade Unions and Pancasila pp. 274-301, references pp. 290-297, bibliography pp. 298-301.
Holk Harald Dengel : The history of the attempt to establish an Islamic State in Indonesia and its impact on Indonesian politics till today pp. 302-341, map of West-Java p. 317, references pp. 333-338, bibliography pp. 339-341.
Margit Urhahn : For a sociology of India : "tribe" and "caste" reconsidered pp. 342-416, references pp. 409-411, bibliography pp. 412-416.
Inge Rösch-Rhomberg : Kinship categories in two South Asian societies : competition and cooperation in Swat and Kandy pp. 417-466, 4 figs., references pp. 454-462, bibliography pp. 463-466.
Wolfgang Werner : Sri Lanka and the Maldives : aspects of ecological development in two South-Asian island republics pp. 467-503, references pp. 496 to 498, bibliography pp. 499-503.
Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt : Community forestry in the hills of Nepal pp. 504-539, 2 maps pp. 510 and 511, 1 table p. 522, bibliography pp. 534-539.
List of contributors pp. 540-545.
Appendix 1 : List of plates of the contribution "Sri Lanka and the Maledives :
Aspects of ecological development in two South-Asian Islan[d] republics [pp. 547-549], photographs [pp. 550-554].
Appendix 2 : List of plates [pp. 555-556], plates 1-5 [pp. 557-569].

113 Annotated bibliography of new Indonesian literature on the history of Indonesia / by Holk H. Dengel. - 1987. 114 p. ISBN 3-515-04988-6
Subject index pp. 109-114.
This bibliography is an attempt at giving a general view of the essential books of Indonesian historiography written in Indonesia after the Sukarno era. The bibliography concentrates on the books by Indonesian writers, published between 1970 and 1986 in Indonesia. The books are listed in alphabetical order according to their authors or titles and filed in a subject register divided into the usual historical periods in Indonesia. The comments on the books provide a general survey of the content. The emphasis of this bibliography is on the history of the struggle for independence, regional history and biographies of important Indonesians. An important part of this bibliography concerns books written by a team of historians of the project for the documentation of Indonesian history by the Ministry of Culture and Education and books from various Indonesian publishing houses, in particular the publishing houses of Gunung Agung, Inti Idayu Press, Balai Pustaka, Mayasari and the Center for Armed Forces History.

114 Die Stadt Badulla : Strukturentwicklung und Zentralität eines Ortes im östlichen zentralen Hochland der Insel Celyon [The town of Badulla : structural development and central status of a town in the eastern central highlands of the Isle of Ceylon] / von [by] Siegbert Dicke. - 1987. XII, 311 S. ISBN 3-515-04995-9
75 Abbildungen [graphs and maps], English summary pp. 292-296, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 297-311, Anhang [appendix]: 40 Photographien [photographs].
This topographical analysis is dedicated to Badulla, the "suburb" of the UvaBasin situated in the eastern part of the Central Highland of the Isle of Ceylon (Sri Lanka). During British colonial rule, Badulla became the centre of teaplantation in Uva; today, it is rather a centre of administration, and, in addition, a central place for the south-eastern part of the isle. The "centrality" of the location (following Christaller) has been analyzed from various angles (telephone connections, school-systems, medical care, trade and industry, tea-plantations).

115 Social accounting matrix als praxisnahes Daten- und Modellsystem für Entwicklungsländer[Social accounting matrix as efficient data and model systems for developing countries] / von [by] Elmar Kleiner. - 1987. X, 209, [43], 3 p. ISBN 3-515-04997-5
Literatur [bibliography] pp. 192-205, Anhang [appendix]: SAM Sri Lanka 1980 pp. 206-288, English summary [pp. 253-255].
Social Accounting Matrices (SAM) have nowadays been accepted as being efficient data systems in development economics research, allowing a consistent and flexible breakdown of data. Problem-oriented simulation models, based on SAM, may act as a practical finding help in the economic process of developing countries. This study presents information and impulses to :
(i) the methodology of empiric economic research by developing consistent data and modulating a model-system based on SAM;
(ii) the empirical experience with a complete model for Sri Lanka;
(iii) the development theory by discussing, using and testing some hypotheses regarding income distribution and consumption structure.

116 The problem of "Greater Baluchistan" : a study of Baluch nationalism / by Inayatullah Baloch. - 1987. VIII, 299 p. ISBN 3-515-04999-1
Selected bibliography pp. 260-278, biographical notes pp. 279-283, glossary p. 284, 5 maps and 8 illustrations pp. 285-299.
The area of Baluch settlement extends from Eastern Iran to the western part of Pakistan. "Greater Baluchistan" encompasses this entire area and Baluch nationalists would claim all this territory as their homeland. Inayatullah Baloch is the first Baluch historian who has traced the evolution of this idea and its implications. He also provides a detailed survey of the history of Baluchistan from the 18th century to the emergence of Pakistan which annexed Kalat, the central State of Eastern Baluchistan, after a brief period of independence in 1948. Baloch's study is based on a great deal of source material. He has done extensive field work in Baluchistan.

117 Portuguese Asia : aspects in history and economic history; sixteenth and seventeenth centuries / edited by Roderich Ptak. - 1987. VIII, 219 p. ISBN 3-51505136-8
This book contains a brief introduction by Dietmar Rothermund and eight essays (in English or German) on various aspects of the Portuguese presence in South Asia and the Far East:
Dietmar Rothermund : Introduction : The fate of the Portuguese in Asia pp. V-VIII).
Malcolm Dunn : Pfeffer, Profit und Property Rights : Zur Entwicklungslogik des Estado da ndia im südostasiatischen Raum [Pepper, profit and property rights : on the logic of development of the Estado da ndia in the Southeast Asian region] pp. 1-36, 3 Abbildungen [graphs], 5 Tabellen [tables] im Text [in the text].
John Villiers : Portuguese Malacca and Spanish Manila : two concepts of empire pp. 37-57, 1 table.
Sanjay Subrahmanyam : Cochin in decline, 1600-1650 : myth and manipulation in the Estado da India pp. 59-85, 1 table.
Roderich Ptak : The transportation of sandalwood from Timor to China and Macao c. 1350-1600 pp. 87-109.
Roderich Ptak : China, Portugal und der Malediven-Handel vom frühen 15. bis frühen 16. Jahrhundert : einige Bemerkungen zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte Südasiens [China, Portugal and the trade with the Maldives from the early 15th to early 16th centuries : some remarks on the economic history of South Asia] pp. 111-142.
K. C. Fok : Early Ming images of the Portuguese pp. 143-155
Cesar Guillén-Nuñez : Thomas Pereira, S. J., and the eclipse of the Portuguese Padroada pp. 157-175.
Johannes Pögl : Beispiele zu einer kritischen Dokumentation des Schiffsverkehrs auf der Ostindienroute im portugiesischen Schrifttum des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts [Examples of a critical documentation of the shipping traffic on the East India route as documented in Portuguese writings of the 16th and 17th centuries] pp. 177-198.
M[alcolm] Dunn : Pepper, profit and property rights : on the nature of economic development of the Estado da Índia in Southeast Asia (Summary) pp. 199-200.
R[oderich] Ptak : China, Portugal and trade in the Maldive Islands from the early fifteenth to the early sixteenth century (summary) pp. 201-202.
J. Pögl : Shipping on the Carreira da ndia in the sixteenth and seventeenth century : a collection of critical Portuguese documents (summary) p. 203.
List of contributors pp. 205-206.
Index pp. 207-219.
[Map of South and Southeast Asia p. 220]

118 Rahmat Ali : a biography / by Kursheed Kamal Aziz. - 1987. XXXIII, 576 p.
ISBN 3-515-05051-5
Index pp. 543-576, list of illustrations [pp. 577-578], illustrations [pp. 579 to 592].
Rahmat Ali, who coined the term "Pakistan" and propagated this idea from Cambridge since 1933, has been almost forgotten in his own country. His work and his motives remained obscure as no adequate study of his life and times was available, so far. Kursheed Kamal Aziz has written the first detailed political biography of Rahmat Ali which throws new light on the genesis of Pakistan. This book is based on the study of a great deal of source material and is a major contribution to modern historiography.
1. Important dates in Rahmat Ali's life pp. 491-494.
2. Now or never : are we to live or perish for ever? pp. 495-501.
3. What does the Pakistan National Movement stand for? pp. 502-510.
4. Pakistan and Pakish nationalism by Muhammad Yusuf Khan pp. 511-524.
Bibliography :
1. Archival material p. 525.
2. Unpublished material pp. 525-526.
3. Works by Rahmat Ali pp. 526-528.
4. Other works pp. 528-538.
5. Articles pp. 528-540.
6. Magazines and newspapers pp. 540-541.

119 Sozio-ökonomische Determinanten der Fertilität der Landbevölkerung im Nord-Punjab : Fallbeispiel: Muradi Janjil (Pakistan) [Socio-economic determinants of the fertility of the rural population in North Punjab : case study: Muradi Janjil (Pakistan) / von Eva-Maria Herms. - 1987. XII, 256 p. ISBN 3-515-05058-2
Glossar [glossary] pp. 217-224, 5 Tabellen [tables] [pp. 225-231], Bibliographie [bibliography] pp. 232-246, English summary pp. 247-256.
The inhabitants of the village studied here, suffering from the rural population pressure already at an early stage, began to accept the influences of modernization during the last century. The increasing industrialization resulted in a replacement of the existing social structure but not in class oriented differentiations. The fulfilling of existing norms demands from the Muradi Janjil inhabitants to relinquish their concept of life. Due to lack of education, some are forced to try to maintain at least their very subsistence; others, however, aim at preserving their surplus by securing the best educational possibilities for their children.

120 Ziarat und Pir-e-Muridi : Golra Sharif, Nurpur Shahan und Pir Baba; drei muslimische Wallfahrtstätten in Nordpakistan [Ziarat and Pir-e-Muridi : Golra Sharif, Nurpur Shahan and Pir Baba; three Muslim pilgrimage places in North Pakistan] / von [by] Harald Einzmann. - 1988. IX, 176 p. ISBN 3-515-04801-4
Ausgewählte Literatur [select bibliography] pp. 163-172, English summary pp. 173-176, photographs [pp. 179-239].
Within popular Islam, the veneration of saints opens to the plain Muslim a wide range of possibilities of individual interpretation, understanding and integration of his religion. In order to understand the written commandments of popular Islam, deeply embodied in the majority of the population, the future and the history must both be taken into account. This popular Islam, with all its various facets, may be seen as a national uprising with all social and political consequences. Both living and dead saints (pir) and their burial places (shrines) symbolize the centre of popular Islam in Pakistan. The author analyzed three famous but quite different places of pilgrimage in northern Pakistan (Nurpur and Golra Sharif in Islamabad and Pir Baba in Buner/Swat) as well as the system of their pilgrimage and veneration. A multitude of saints and disciples (pir-e-muridi-system) organize and mobilize the masses not only in regard of the religious sphere. Of course, the government became aware of the political power of this institution and thus tries to get it under state control.
Anhang [appendix]:
Genealogien [genealogies] pp. 89-95.
Organisation und Verwaltung [Organization and administration] pp. 97-100. Urs-Programme und Plakate [Urs programmes and posters] pp. 101-105. Amulette (Golra) [amulets (Golra) pp. 107-110.
Votivzettel [votive leaflets] pp. 111-112.
Gerichtsurteile [court rules] pp. 113-138.
Zeitungsausschnitte [paper clippings] pp. 139-144.
Planskizzen (sketch maps]: Golra Sharif p. 146.
Golra Baza[a]r (1977/78) p. 147.
Nurpur : Schrein und Bazar [shrine and bazaar] (1977/78) p. 148.
Pir Baba : Schrein und Bazar [shrine and bazaar] (Aug. 1977) p. 149.
Glossar [glossary] pp. 153-160.

121 Yantracintmai of Dmodara / critically edited by Hans-Georg Türstig. - 1988. 166, 5, 40 p. ISBN 3-515-05212-7

Bibliography and abbreviations pp. 13-14, appendix pp. 167-171, drawings : yantras [pp. 173-239]

The Sanskrit text of Yantracintmai which is widespread in northern and central India expresses the magic (adhicra) or the realisation of the "six magic arts" (satkarmni) : vakarana (to bring under control), stambhana (to bring under spell), vidvea (to split), ucctana (to uproot, to banish), mrana (to kill) and nti (to satisfy). The work describes the respective yantras (magic diagrams) required for the special acts, the necessary substances for the process and the rites to be performed. Various, sometimes even differently titled, manuscripts and texts demonstrate the previous and prevalent popularity of the Yantracintmai among certain groups. The present work is the first attempt at a critical edition. The yantras - in varying versions of different manuscripts and editions - are depicted in the appendix.

122 Die sowjetische Entwicklungspolitik gegenüber der Dritten Welt unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Indiens [The Soviet development policy regarding the Third World with special reference to India] / von [by] Klaus-Dieter Müller. - 1988. XIII, 433 p. ISBN 3-515-05284-4

Literaturnachweis [bibliography] pp. 395-430, English summary pp. 431-433.

This monograph analyses Soviet Third World development policy, especially with regard to India, from the end of World War II till well into the eighties. The developments in the Soviet Union have had their antecedents much earlier in another field : development policy. Since the beginning of the sixties, there have been many discussions with\on the Third World and gradually also regarding Soviet development projects, there. The crisis of Soviet development policy actually overshadowed the over-all problem in the Soviet Union. Development policy, in particular, clearly demonstrates the differences between ideological claims and reality. The weaknesses of the Soviet economic and social system are clearly shown. The Soviet Union was unable to offer an alternative to western policy for all countries of the Third World, but for some of these countries, economic cooperation proved to be rather advantageous for both sides, especially for India, the focus of Soviet development policy among the capitalistically oriented developing countries.

123 Effektive Protektion von Rohstoffproduktion und -verarbeitung : mit empirischen Untersuchungen zur philippinischen Volkswirtschaft [Effective protection of the production and processing of raw materials : with am empirical study of the Philippine economy] / von [by] Markus Kramer. - 1988. XV, 289 p.

ISBN 3-515-05348-4

56 Tabellen im Text [tables in the text], 3 Abbildungen [graphs], 11 Tabellen [tables] im Anhang [in the appendix], Bibliographie [bibliography] pp. 272 to 289, English summary [pp. 290-293].

This study, concentrating on the Philippines, aims at defining the question in which way the agricultural sector has suffered from import substitutions oriented towards promoting the industrialisation in the country. The approach of an effective protection is analysed taking into account the specific circumstances of economic-political instruments. The author discusses measures of economic policy with regard to an effective protection of a number of major agricultural products focusing on the production of coconuts.

124 Sozialstrukturen im Kumaon : Bergbauern im Himalaya [Social structures in Kumaon : mountain famers in the Himalaya] / von [by] Monika Krengel. - 1988. XIV, 315 p. ISBN 3-515-05358-1

1 Karte [map], 14 Tabellen [tables], 3 Abbildungen [graphs], 12 Photos, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 295-299, Glossar [glossary] pp. 300-306, Index pp. 307-310, English summary pp. 311-315.

Kinship and the exchange of gifts are the focus of this work. Hierarchical internal organisation of the sub-caste, lineage system and segmentation, village community and family structures are discussed in the first part of the book. The authoress describes in which way policies are formulated in this context. There are excessive rules regarding the exchange of gifts combined with a meticulous perception of egality and a strict hierarchical order. The second part mainly focuses on extra-local kinship patterns as well as on communication among groups related through marriage. The authoress also deals with generally accepted structures with no automatic correlation to the common practices of the people concerned, their conception of life, its quality and identity. She also describes attitudes and proceedings in the female sector and the immense importance of local deities in everyday life, who manifest themselves through media and shamans.

125 Shastric traditions in Indian arts / edited by Anna Libera Dallapiccola; in collaboration with Christine Walter-Mendy; Stephanie Zingel-Avé Lallemant. - 1989. ISBN 3-515-05565-7

1. Texts. - XVII, 491 p.

2. References and documentation. - VII, 135 p., CIV plates

These volumes are the output of the international conference on "The Shastric traditions in the Indian arts" held at Heidelberg from July 14th to 17th, 1986. The aim of the conference was to open the discussion on the relationship between theory and practice in the Indian arts, between the written treatises and the actual works of art. The disciplines reviewed here are : iconography, architecture, town planning, literature, ritual, performing arts, old traditions and modern developments. The wide range of subjects discussed and the thought provoking comments of the scholars open new perspectives on a hitherto much spoken of and yet neglected aspect of Indian culture. The value of the book is enhanced by the rich documentation material in the second volume of this work.

Volume 1: Texts

From the table of contents:

A[nna] L[ibera] Dallapiccola : Introduction pp. XV-XVII.

Kapila Vatsyayan : Inaugural address pp. 1-4.

T. S. Maxwell : ilpa versus stra pp. 5-15.

Sheldon Pollock : The idea of stra in traditional India pp. 17-26.

J[oachim] Bautze : Did painters in eastern Rajasthan follow a "shastric" tradition? : a case study pp. 27-33, quoted sources pp. 31-33.

Claudine Bautze-Picron : "Identification" or "classification" in Buddhist iconography : the case of the six-handed Avalokitevara images in Bihar and Bengal, 8th to 12th century pp. 35-50, 2 graphs, bibliography pp. 47-50.

Gouriswar Bhattacharya : Deva: Caturmukha-Pañcamukha: Bhrahm and iva: ilpa-stras and art-objects pp. 51-70, bibliography pp. 67-70.

Kalyan Kumar Dasgupta : The Pncartra tradition and Brahmanical iconography pp. 71-91, glossary of terms pp. 90-91.

M. A. Dhaky : The Jina image and the Nirgrantha agamic and hymnic imagery pp. 93-108, original agamic and other sources p. 108.

Adalbert J. Gail : Iconography or icononomy? : Sanskrit texts on Indian art pp. 109-114.

Juthika Maitra : The benign Dev and the Puranic tradition pp. 115-121.

John F. Mosteller : The practice of early Indian iconometry : the evidence of images and texts pp. 123-130.

Amita Ray : The cult and ritual of Durg pj in Bengal pp. 131-141.

Willem B. Bollée : The kâgra or from men's house to mansion in eastern India and South-East Asia pp. 143-149.

Bruno Dagens : Iconography in aivgamas : description or prescription? pp. 151-163.

Devangana Desai : The location of sculptures in the architectural scheme of the Kariya Mahdeva Temple of Khajuraho : stra and practice pp. 155 to 165.

Michael W. Meister : Reading monuments and seeing texts pp. 167-173.

R. N. Misra : Indian ilpa tradition, ilp and aesthetics : a study of correspondence pp. 175-186.

R. Nath : On the theory of Indo-Muslim architecture pp. 187-201.

H. Sarkar : Some aspects of shastric tradition in the architecture of Kerala pp. 203-212.

Snehal Shah : Water structures in western Indian Vststra pp. 213-218.

Joan L. Erdman : Jaipur : city planning in 18th century India pp. 219-235, references pp. 233-235.

John M. Fritz : The plan of Vijayanagara pp. 237-251, references cited pp. 249-251.

C. M. Starza-Majewski : The sacred geography of Puri pp. 253-259.

Anne Vergati : Ritual planning of the Bhaktapur kingdom, Nepal pp. 261-268.

Julie H. Hiebert : Tradition and innovation in Sanskrit Mahkvya : the harem sunset pp. 269-283.

Indira Viswanathan Peterson : Playing with universes : figures of speech in Kvya epic description pp. 285-299.

Sheldon Pollock : Playing by the rules : stra and Sanskrit literature pp. 301 to 312.

David Smith : The dance of iva and the imagination pp. 313-332.

Kapila Vatsyayan : The Nyastra : a history of criticism pp. 333-338.

Bettina Bäumer : Unmanifest and manifest forms according to the aivgamas pp. 339-349.

Richard R. Davis : Enlivening images : the aiva rite of invocation pp. 351 to 359.

S. S. Janaki : Indian classical dance and temple tradition pp. 361-369.

A. A. Shapiro : lagrmaparik and lagrmaillakani pp. 371-378.

Josef Kuckertz : The rga-system of South India pp. 379-392, musical notes pp. 358-392.

Sharon Lowen : Contemporary issues of stra in the classical dance of Orissa pp. 393-406.

David B. Reck : The invisible stra : a personal memoir of musical study in India pp. 407-414, bibliography p. 414.

Phillip B. Zarilli : Between text and embodied practice : writing and reading in a South Indian martial tradition pp. 415-424, bibliography p. 424.

T. Richard Blurton : Continuity and change in the tradition of Bengali paa-painting pp. 425-451, bibliography pp. 450-451.

Robert J. Del Bontà : Calendar prints and Indian traditions pp. 453-455.

Partha Mitter : How the past was regained by Indian artists during the Swadeshi era (c. 1850-1910) pp. 457-473, bibliography p. 473.

Ralph M. Steinmann : Klam : Form, technique, and application of a changing ritual folk art of Tamil Nadu pp. 475-491.

Vol. 2 : References and documentation

From the table of contents:

Index pp. 1-32.

List of works as cited by the authors pp. 33-55.

List of original sources, edited, as cited by the authors pp. 57-60.

List of original sources, unedited, as cited by the authors pp. 61-64.

The authors pp. 65-74.

List of drawings related to the articles pp. 75-76.

List of photos related to the articles pp. 77-84.

Drawings pp. 87-135.

Plates I-CIV.

126 Burmese entrepreneurship : creative response in the colonial economy / by Aung Tun Thet. - 1989. XVI, 197 p., 4 tables, 8 figures. ISBN 3-515-05339-5

Bibliography pp. 175-191, author index pp. 192-193, subject index pp. 194 to 107.

In recent years, there have been significant developments effecting the international economy and the position of many Third World countries. The 1980's were characterized by massive debt problems and deepening poverty in many poor nations with the result that there is a growing sense of pessimism and despair. As one potential way out of this morass, there has been a steady emphasis on a more "free market" approach and the role of entrepreneurship has once again come into the limelight. In line with this development, the present enquiry is an examination of modern Burmese economic history through the perspective of entrepreneurial theory.

127 Reduplizierte Verbstämme im Tamil [Reduplicated verb stems in Tamil] / von [by] Thomas Malten. - 1989. IX, 283 p. ISBN 3-515-05378-6

Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 263-283, English summary pp. 261-262.

This volume aims at explaining the phenomenon of reduplication of verbs in Tamil in its major features and then describing the word type of reduplicated verbstems in its entirety, in form, content and function. The description of these forms, to which many parallels in all Dravidian but also in the Indo-Aryan languages can be pointed out and of which there are as many as 200 in Modern Tamil, is supplemented by a collection of references from dictionaries and from modern literature, as well as by references collected from informants.

128 Islamisierung in Pakistan, 1977-84 : Untersuchungen zur Auflösung autochthoner Strukturen [Islamization in Pakistan, 1977-84 : studies on the dissolution of autochtonous structures] / von [by] S. Jamal Malik. - 1989. XVII, 475 p. ISBN 3-51505389-1

66 Tabellen [tables], 16 Diagramme [diagrams], 7 Graphen [graphs], 4 Karten im Text [maps in the text], index pp. 459-467, English summary pp. 468-475.

This study deals with the policy of Islamization in Pakistan, especially since 1977, concentrating on the diverse religious groups. Taking traditional and non-traditional institutions as an example, the author demonstrates in which way the national state, as an incarnation of colonial values, consolidated its power integrating and usurping hitherto untouched parts of the society. Historical aspects have also been taken into account.

129 Banks, gods and government : institutional and informal credit structure in a remote and tribal Indian district (Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh); 1960-1985 / by Jogishwar Singh. - 1989. XXXVIII, 410 p. ISBN 3-51505396-4

92 tables, 15 graphs, 13 maps in the text, bibliography pp. 355-390, index I (general terms) pp. 393-395, index II (names of persons) pp. 397-399, index III (names of places) pp. 401-403, index IV (geographical terms) p. 405, appendix : other accounts: unwarranted conclusions pp. 407-410.

This is a comprehensive work by an administrator about Kinnaur, an unknown region in the Western Himalayas, not accessible to foreigners and non-Kinnauri Indians without a special permit. In the absence of published material, the author had to rely on hitherto untapped primary sources, field surveys and personal interviews. Before dealing with the functioning of cooperative institutions, commercial banks, the government and the local village gods as credit giving agencies in separate chapters, the author gives a wide-ranging introduction about Kinnaur, followed by a detailed chapter on its history with special emphasis on state formation and the pattern of land reforms in the area. Richly supplemented by statistical tables, regression analyses, graphs, histograms, plates, maps and appendices, this book can serve as a standard reference work for those interested in this part of India, its history, geography, religion, economy, social life or its trade links across the border with Tibet. It contains information from archives, government documents and personal experiences which have never been published before.

130 Galle : geomedizinische Analyse einer Küstenstadt auf Sri Lanka (Ceylon) [Galle : geomedical analysis of a coastal town on Sri Lanka (Ceylon) / von [by] Hella Wellmer. - 1989. XXXIV, 557 p. ISBN 3-515-05444-8

References p. X, 87 Abbildungen [graphs] im Text [in the text], 19 Photos am Ende des Bandes [at the end of the volume], English summary pp. 553-557.

The author studied geography after having completed medical studies and worked as a general medical practitioner. Her aim has been to concentrate on geomedical subjects. She presents a town-geographical analysis as the starting point of a geomedical study of the town of Galle based on intensive research and questioning, evaluation of historical sources in Sri Lanka and the Netherlands, as well as on laboratory experiments. Finally, she presents a structuring of the town according to "hygiochores", interpreting this term as connoting areas of equal quality regarding health and social welfare, in short the "quality of life".

131 Die Geschichte der United National Party in Sri Lanka [The history of the United National Party in Sri Lanka] / von [by] Thomas Prinz. - 1989. XXVII, 274 p. ISBN 3-515-05567-3

16 Tabellen [tables], 7 Abbildungen [graphs] im Text [in the text], Abkürzungsverzeichnis und Erklärung srilankischer Begriffe [list of abbreviations and explanation of Sri Lankan terms] pp. XV-XVII, Chronologie von Ereignissen der neueren Geschichte Sri Lankas [chronology of events of the modern history of Sri Lanka] pp. XVIII-XXI, Anhang [appendix] 1 : a) Sri Lanka : Allgemeine Daten [general data] : Karte von [map of] Sri Lanka : Geographische Lage, Aufteilung nach Provinzen und bedeutende Städte [geographical location, division into provinces and important towns ; b) Tabelle: Wichtige Daten zur Geographie, Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft [table : Important data on the geography, population and economy] ; c) Wichtige Entwicklungsindikatoren Sri Lankas im Vergleich mit anderen asiatischen Ländern [Main indicators of Sri Lankan development as compared to other Asian countries] p. 235; Anhang [Appendix] 2 : Wahlergebnisse und derzeitige Aufteilung der Wahlkreise [Election results and present break-up of the constituencies] : a) Wahlergebnisse bei Parlamentswahlen [Results of parliamentary elections] pp. 236 to 237 ; b) Wahlergebnisse der Präsidentschaftswahlen [Results of presidential elections] p. 238; [Map of] Sri Lanka : Electoral districts p. 239; Anhang [Appendix] 3 : Die UNP-geführten Kabinette [The UNP cabinets] pp. 240-250; Anhang [Appendix] 4 : Die UNP-Abgeordneten von 1977 bis 1987 nach Beruf, Religions[-] und Kastenzugehörigkeit [The UNP Members of Parliament from 1977 to 1987 according to their profession, religion and caste] pp. 251-255; Verzeichnis der Kurztitel und Abkürzungen der Bibliographie [List of abbreviated titles and abbreviations used in the bibliography] p. 256, Bibliographie [bibliography] pp. 257-264, index pp. 265-269, English summary pp. 270-274.

This volume depicts the development of the main Sri Lankan party from its origins during the late 19th century, its foundation at the end of British colonial

rule up to the parliamentary elections of 1989. Following the major periods of government and opposition by UNP, its policies are described as well as its position within the Ceylonese party system and its organisational development. The chapters on the periods of UNP government also deal with the foreign policy pursued. The author then studies the question as to how intraparty decisions are taken; he further describes the relationship among the different factions of the party and the interest groups which exert their influence on the UNP. Furthermore, the voters, the party members and the leading élite are analysed. On the basis of these results the author attempts to contribute to the development of the party theory. He presents and defines the type of a "conservative state élite party". This work is based on empirical and archive studies undertaken in 1989.

132 Bhakti und Bhakta : religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zum Heilsbegriff und zur religiösen Umwelt des r Sant Ekanth [Bhakti and Bhakta : studies on the conception of salvation and on the religious environment of r Sant Ekanth] / von [by] Hugh van Skyhawk. - 1990. XVI, 382 p.

ISBN 3-515-05618-1

Abkürzungen [abbreviations] pp. XI-XIII, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 330-355, indische Termini [Indian terms] pp. 350-362, Sachregister [index] pp. 363-372, English summary pp. 373-382.

Whilst medieval devotional literature in European languages represent as a rule objects of academic interest, the literature of the medieval sant-kavi (poetsaints) of Mahrra remain one of the favourite genres of the Marh literature even today. Up to now, there have been numerous thematics of Ekanth's writings, but no structural analysis of any of his major works. The chief aim of the present study is to determine the essential components of his spiritual teachings by means of a structural analysis of his most important work, the Ekanth-Bhgavat, and a translation of its second chapter (adhyya). In addition, the question of the influence of Sfsm on the Ekanth-Bhgavat is studied using internal and historical materials.

133 Zielgruppenorientierte Ernährungspolitik für Entwicklungsländer : empirische Sektoranalyse auf der Basis ökonometrischer Nachfrage- und Angebotssysteme am Beispiel Indonesiens [Target group orientated food policy for developing countries : an empirical sector analysis based on the econometric systems of supply and demand taking Indonesia as an example] / von [by] Serge-Arno Klümper. - 1990. XVI, 580 p. ISBN 3-515-05620-3

70 Abbildungen [tables], 33 Grafiken im Text [graphs in the text], Anhänge zu Kapitel 2 bis 9 [Appendices to chapters 2 to 9] pp.468-573, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 439 to 465, English summary pp. 575-580.

Third World decision makers in economics as well as the supporting international and national organisations of financial and technical co-operation more and more realise that food security does not automatically come along en passant with the general economic growth and is often jeopardised in the

wake of measures for structural adaptation. Food security must, therefore, be regarded as an aim of economic policy in its own right. The author, taking Indonesia as a case study, demonstrates which target oriented planning measures must be taken in food policy and which analyses and planning methods will have to be applied.

134 Die frühere Sozialordnung Moolkhos und Turkhos (Chitral) [The former social order of the Moolkhos and Turkhos (Chitral)] / von [by] Peter Eggert. - 1990. VII, 271 p. ISBN 3-515-05735-8

Statistischer Teil [statistics] pp. 133-264, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 265-267, English summary pp. 268- 271.

From the table of contents : Reconstruction of the social system of the former independent (till 1954) princely state of Chitral (North Pakistan) - basis of the system : firstly, kinship groupings, and secondly, a fully developed state apparatus, i.e. Chitral belonged to the segmentary states - methodology of reconstruction : 1. determination of the former kinship groupings and description of their internal structure; 2. reconstruction of the social strata of the population; 3. collection of statistical data on the individual population groups (living places, present property rights, names, titles, names of eventual landlords, farmer services rendered, and taxes); 4. description of the state apparatus (structure, administration of Moolkho and Turkho, system of taxation) - main results : 1. more clans than expected; 2. exact data on the size of these clans and their land holdings; 3. existence of population groups not organised according to descent; 4. existence of an artificial kinship, which, from a certain point of time onwards, was almost used for political reasons, only; 5. exact data on size, distribution and property among the different strata of the populace; 6. distinct social dynamics within the system; 7. multi-central organisation of state : joint rule of several hierarchically equal rulers from different centres; 8. power of monopoly of the ruler in certain areas; 9. highly developed local administration and a complicated system of taxation; 10. revolutionary reorganisation of the former social order during British times.

135 Erste Heidelberger Südasiengespräche [First Heidelberg talks on South Asia] / herausgegeben von [edited by] Dietmar Rothermund. - 1990. IX, 124 p. ISBN 3-515-05804-4

This book contains the papers presented during the First Heidelberg talks on South Asia as well as an overview of the discussions thereafter.

Contents :

Werner Breitschwerdt : Deutsch-Indische Zusammenarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Hochtechnologie [German-Indian co-operation in the field of high technology] pp. 1-11.

Dietmar Rothermund : Indien 1990 : Strukturprobleme und Entwicklungstendenzen [India 1990 : structural problems and development trends] pp. 13-16

Dagmar Gräfin Bernstorff : Die indischen Parlamentswahlen 1989 und die Folgen [The Indian parliamentary elections 1989 and their repercussions] pp. 17 to 24.

Dieter Braun : Internationale Auswirkungen veränderter Strukturen und Potentiale in Südasien [International consequences of changed structures and potentials in South Asia] pp. 29-33.

Citha D. Maaß : Indiens Konflikte mit seinen Nachbarn [India's conflicts with her neighbours] pp. 35-40.

Reinhold Braun : Investitionen in Indien : Erfahrungen aus der Praxis [Investing in India : practical experiences] pp. 45-49.

Dieter Conrad : Die Zukunft des indischen Rechtsstaates [The future of the Indian legal state] pp. 55-74.

Hans Christoph Rieger : Probleme der Liberalisierung der indischen Wirtschaft [Problems of liberalising the Indian economy] pp. 75-82.

Bruno Knall : Die Europäische Gemeinschaft nach 1992 und die Länder Südasiens [The European community after 1992 and the countries of South Asia] pp. 83-90.

Klaus Zeller : Deutsch-indische Beziehungen: Chancen und Grenzen [German-Indian relations: opportunities and limitations] pp. 93-101.

Hans Wittenberg : Deutsche Kulturpolitik in Indien [German cultural policy in India] pp. 103-108.

Anhang : Dieter Kebschull : Anmerkungen zur indischen Liberalisierungspolitik [Remarks on the Indian policy of liberalisation] pp. 117-119.

Tabelle : Wirtschaftsleben Indiens [table : Data on the Indian economy] p. 121.

Liste der Teilnehmer [list of participants] pp. 123-124.

136 Verwandtschaft und Mythologie bei den Mewahang Rai in Ostnepal : eine ethnographische Studie zum Problem der "ethnischen Identität" [Kinship and mythology among the Mewahang Rai in East Nepal : an ethnographical study of the problem of "ethnic identity"] / von [by] Martin Gaenszle. - 1991. XVI, 409 p. ISBN 3-515-05861-3

Index A : Sachregister [subject-matter index] pp. 381-385, index B : Indigene Termini [indigenous terms] pp. 386-396, Bibliographie [bibliography] pp. 365 to 386, 17 Abbildungen im Text [graphs in the text], Appendix 1 : Phoneminventar [inventory of phonemes] p. 357, Appendix 2 : Dokument aus Bala 1853 [document from Bala 1853] p. 358 , Rekonstruktive Übersetzung [reconstructive translation] p. 359, Appendix 3 : Schöpfungsmythos [myth of creation] pp. 360-363, Appendix 4 : Erzähler [the narrators] p. 364.

The Mewahang Rai of the Arun Valley belong to the populace of the Nepalese hilly regions, speaking a Tibeto-Burmese language. They present an example of a tribal culture which has maintained a marked ethnic self-confidence in spite of manifold changes triggered off by increasing cultural contacts and the process of state formation. The present study describes the foundations of this concept of themselves : on the one hand, there are kinship organisation and a categorisation of the different group formations; on the other hand, we come across their narrative depiction of their origin and their ancestors' deeds, as laid down in mythology. A combined view of these two spheres in their totality - thus is the basic theory of this study - allows a genuine understanding of the constitution of "ethnic identity".

137 Political transition in South Asia : regional cooperation, ethnic conflict, political participation / ed. by Dagmar Bernstorff; Dieter Braun. - 1991. XVI, 168 p. ISBN 3-515-05886-9

From the table of contents :

Dagmar Bernstorff and Dieter Braun : Introduction pp. IX-XVI.

Partha S. Ghosh : Domestic political constraints to South Asian regionalism pp. 1-24.

Citha D. Maass : Regional cooperation : a new phase in India's foreign policy? pp. 25-41.

Shamsul Islam Khan : The political and security aspects of intra-regional cooperation : ASEAN and SAARC pp. 43-51.

S. D. Muni : Sri Lanka's ethnic crisis and India's response pp. 53-63.

Joyce Pettigrew : Sikh revivalism and protest in Punjab : 1978-1984 pp. 65 to 85, references pp. 83-85.

Bernt Glatzer and Ursel Siebert : Ethnic relations under stress : Punjabis, Pashtuns, and Afghan refugees pp. 87-106, references pp. 102-106.

Hagen Berndt : Chipko Andolan : From protest to social movement pp. 107 to 116.

Tatu Vanhanen : The patterns of electoral participation in South Asia pp. 117 to 136, 4 tables, references pp. 131-136.

Kirsten Westergaard : People's participation, local government and rural development in West Bengal pp. 137-151, 3 tables.

The authors p. 153.

Select bibliography pp. 155-160.

Index pp. 161-168.

138 Dd : Lieder [Dd : songs] / eingeleitet und übersetzt von [introduced and translated by] Monika Thiel-Horstmann. - 1991. XIII, 388 p.

ISBN 3-515-05421-9

Glossar von Begriffen und Namen [glossary of terms and names] pp. 359 to 363, Bibliographie [bibliography] pp. 365-374, Verzeichnis der indischen Texte [list of Indian texts] pp. 375-388.

Dd (c. 1544-1604) is a Bhakti mystic of North India with an opus of about 2,500 aphorisms and more than 400 songs (bhajans). In this volume, these bhajans have been translated into German and supplied with an introduction and commentary based on a new critical edition. For the first time, we have a complete German edition of the songs of the North Indian Bhakti tradition.

139 Das Hindukush-Haus : zum symbolischen Prinzip der Sonderstellung von Raummitte und Raumhintergrund [The Hindukush house : on the symbolic principle of the special status of room centre and room background] / von [by] Dieter Walter Illi. - 1991. 299 p. ISBN 3-515-05932-6

34 Photos und Zeichnungen im Text [photographs and drawings in the text], English synopsis p. 243-245, Figurenverzeichnis [list of figures] pp. 246-247, Tafelverzeichnis [list of photographs] pp. 248-250, Synopsisen [synopses] p. 251, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 252-272, Orts-, Namen- und Sachregister [index of places, names and subject matters] pp. 273-298, 48 Tafeln [plates], 7 Karten [maps].

The aim of the present study is to describe and examine the general spatial phenomena of building structures. The author took as a starting point a hitherto little known house form with four pillars and with a central opening in the roof to let in light and to let out smoke, going back to Iranian and Indian traditions prevalent among some of the tribal groups in the North Indian mountain regions (Hindukush). The main results of this study concentrate on the dwellings, the cult and congregation buildings in the area under survey which have, for the first time, been described and analysed within a synoptic depiction. Secondly, the reconstruction of their structural/symbolic principles always shows a four-pillar house with the exceptional position of the spatial centre and its background.

140 Südasien-Anthologie : 44 Übersetzungen aus südasiatischen Literaturen [South Asian anthology : 44 translations from South Asian languages] / hrsg. von [edited by] Günther D[ietz] Sontheimer in Zusammenarbeit mit [in collaboration with] Helma Werny. - 1993. XIV, 306 p. ISBN 3-515-06025-1

This volume contains a selection of South Asian literary works translated into German. Geographically, they cover the region from the Northern Areas of Pakistan to Indonesia, the languages ranging from classical Sanskrit and Pli to those spoken today. Each example is followed by a short introduction to the respective language.

From the table of contents:

Sprachenkarte [Map of the languages] p. VI.

Legende zur Sprachenkarte [Key to the map of the languages] [p. VII].

Shina pp. 1-4.

Muhammad Amin Zia : An meine Lebensgefährtin [To my companion] pp. 1-2.

Shina [Sprache ; language] pp. 1-4.

Burushaski pp. 3-9.

Der Menschenfresser Manakheco [The man eater Manakheco] (Hunza) pp. 5 to 6.

Das Mädchen aus dem Berge [The girl from inside the mountain] (Nagér) pp. 6-7.

[Burushaski Sprache ; language] pp. 7-9.

Jaunsr pp. 10-15.

Die Abenteuer des Rm [Rm's adventures] pp. 10-14.

Jaunsr [Sprache ; language] pp. 14-15.

Bag pp. 16-19.

Bruder Sonne, Schwester Mond [Brother Sun, Sister Moon] pp. 16-18.

[The Bag language] pp. 18-19.

Nepli pp. 20-29.

Matsyendranth kommt nach Nepal [Matsyendranth comes to Nepal] pp. 20 to 24.

[Note] p. 24.

Jau Paika und Lch [Jau Paika and Lch] pp. 25-29.

[Note] p. 29.

[The Nepli language] p. 29.

Maithil pp. 30-32.

Papagei und Papageiin [Parrot and she-parrot] p. 30.

Sabr p. 30-31.

[The Maithil language] pp. 31-32.

Hind pp. 33-36.

Sechs Gedichte [Six poems] pp. 33-35.

Kabr (1. Hälfte 15. Jh.? [1st half of the 15th century A.D.?]) p. 33.

Srdas (geb. [] 1478?) p. 33.

Bihrll (1595-1664?) p. 33.

Sumitrnandan Pant (1900-1977) : Als er nur ihr Äußeres sah [When he only saw her outward appearance] p. 34.

Ajñeya (Saccidnanda Vtsyyan) (1911-1987) : Willkommen [Welcome) p. 34.

Trilocan (geb. [] 1917) Laß den Tag leicht vergehn [Let the day pass by with ease] p. 35.

[The Hind language] p. 35-36.

Alt [Old]-Avadh pp. 37-40.

Malik Muammad Jyas : Die sechs Jahreszeiten im Spiegel der Liebe [The six annual seasons in the mirror of love] pp. 37-40.

[Malik Muhammad Jyas ; The Avadh language] p. 40.

Khasi pp. 41-46.

Elias Sohlia : Der Markt Luri Lura - oder: Warum der Hund beim Menschen wohnt [The Luri Lura market - or: why the dog lives with man] pp. 41-42.

Donbok T. Laloo : Der, der nicht verbrannt wurde [He who was not cremated] pp. 42-45.

[The Khasi language] p. 46.

[Pater H. Elias Sohlia ; D. T. Laloo] p. 46.

Bengl pp. 47-53.

Kalikumar Chakravarti : Die Geschichte vom kleinen Mann [The story of the little man] pp. 47-52.

[Kalikumar Chakravarti ] p. 53.

[The Bengl language] p. 53.

Birmanisch [Burmese] pp. 54-64.

Die Schwedagon-Pagode von Rangoon : Zusammenfassung einer der Entstehungslegenden [The Shwedagon Pagoda in Rangoon : summary of one of its genesis legends] pp. 54-61.

Anantasuryas Abschiedslied [Anantasurya's farewell song] p. 62.

Birmanisch [The Burmese language] pp. 62-64.

Tamil (Singapur [Singapore]) pp. 65-67.

K. Ilakva : Literarische Verneigung [Literary bow] pp. 65-66.

K. Ilakva (geb. [born] 1957) pp. 66-67.

Indonesisch [Bahasa Indonesia] pp. 68-75.

Mochtar Lubis : Das Porträt [The portrait] pp. 68-71.

Mochtar Lubis pp. 71-73.

Indonesisch [Bahasa Indonesia] pp. 73-75.

Tamil pp. 76-97.

Das Wesen des Königtums (Aus der Tamilfassung des Vinyaka-Puras) [The essence of the monarchy (From the Tamil version of the Vinyaka-Pura] pp. 76-81.

Jayakantan : Die Last der Essensträgerin [The food carrier's burden] pp. 82 to 92.

[Jayakantan] : Danke für die Freundlichkeit [Thank you for your friendliness] pp. 92-96.

Tamil [The Tamil language] p. 96.

"Das Wesen des Königtums" [The essence of the monarchy"] p. 96.

Jayakantan pp. 96-97.

Vgri (Südindische Zigeunersprache [A South Indian gipsy language] pp. 98 to 107.

Die Geschichte von Rma und Lakman [The story of Rma and Lakman] pp. 98-106.

Vgri [The Vgri language] pp. 106-107.

Singhalesisch [Singhalese] pp.108-113.

Sumithra Rahubaddhe : Die Fabrik [The factory] pp. 108-112.

Singhalesisch [The Singhalese language] pp. 112-113.

Sumithra Rahubaddhe p. 113.

lu-Kuumba pp. 114-121.

Schöpfung, Flut und Neubeginn : Urzeitmythen der lu-Kuumbas [Creation, flood and new beginning : Primeval myths of the lu-Kuumbas] pp. 114-121.

lu-Kuumba [Volk und Sprache, people and language] p. 121.

Kanaresisch [Kannaa] pp. 122-142.

U. R. Ananthamurthy : Zusammentreffen [Meeting] pp. 122-132.

Yashwant Chittal : Gefangen [Caught] pp. 133-141.

Kanaresisch [Kannaa] pp. 141-142.

[U. R.] Ananthamurthy p. 142.

Yashwant Chittal p. 142.

Tuu pp. 143-149.

Der Gesang vom daiva Kntri Jumdi [The song of the daiva Kntri Jumdi] pp. 143-146.

[Anmerkungen ; notes] pp. 147-149.

Portugiesisch [Portuguese] (Goa) pp. 150-159.

Vimala Devi : Nak : Ein Schauspiel [Nak : A theatre play] pp. 150-159

[Anmerkungen ; notes] p. 159.

Alt-Marh [Old Marh] pp. 160-197.

ekh Mahamad : Kurkoaka pp. 160-165.

[ekh Mahamad] pp. 165-166.

Jñnadeva : Gott und Göttin : Die Eltern des Universums [God and goddess : The parents of the universe] pp. 166-171.

[Jñanadeva] pp. 171-175.

Marh pp. 176-197.

Kiran Nagarkar : Raghu pp. 176-185.

Arun Kolatkar : Die weiße Lady : aus den Lebenserinnerungen des Balvant Buva [The white lady : from the memoirs of Balvant Buva] pp. 186-189.

Arun Kolatkar : König Leguan [King Iguana] pp. 189-195.

Marh [language] p. 196.

[Kiran Nagarkar] pp. 196-197.

[Arun Kolatkar] p. 197.

Gujart pp. 198-203.

Jhavercand Kalidas Meghani : aniyas Sohn [aniya's son] pp. 198-201.

[Jhavercand Meghani] pp. 201-202.

Gujart [language] pp. 202-203.

Rjasthn pp. 204-210.

Vijay Dn Deth : Jedem sein Maß [To each his bounds] pp. 204-209.

Rjasthn [language] p. 209.

[Vijay Dn Deth] pp. 209-210.

Panjb pp. 211-217.

Kartar Singh Duggal : "Das zehn mal acht Meter große Zimmer" [The ten by ten meters room"] pp. 211-216.

Panjb [language] pp. 216-217.

Urd pp. 218-230.

Salm bin Razzq : Die Lösung [The solution] pp. 218-229.

Urd [language] pp. 229-230.

Sadhukka pp. 231-236.

[krtan Sohil] Das Nachtgebet der Sikhs [The Sikhs' night prayer] pp. 231 to 234.

Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 234-236.

Sadhukka [language] p. 236.

Pli pp.237-239.

Die Predigt von Benares [The Benares sermon] pp. 237-238.

Pli [language] pp. 238-239.

Prkt pp. 240-246.

Vaddhama Nyaputta (Mahvra) : Die Geschichte vom Frosch [The story of the frog] pp. 240-245.

Ardha-Mgadh [language] pp. 245-246.

Jaina-Mhrr pp. 247-256.

Devendra(gai) : Aus dem Leben des Prinzen Bambhadatta [From the life of Prince Bambhadatta] pp. 247-255.

Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 255-256.

Sanskt pp. 257-287.

Klassisches [Classical] Sanskt pp. 257-265.

Ba : König Hara bricht zur Welteroberung auf [King Hara sets out to conquer the world] pp. 257-261.

Anmerkung [note] p. 261.

Sieben Gedichte von [Seven poems by] Bhartahri : Eine Auswahl aus dem [A selection from the]Vairgyaataka] pp. 262-265.

Anmerkung [note] p. 265.

Vedisches [Vedic] Sanskt pp. 266-287.

Elf Hymnen des [Eleven hymns from the] gveda pp. 266-283:

An die Morgenröte [To the first flush of dawn] pp. 266-267.

An Agni [To Agni] pp. 267-269.

Indras Kampf mit Vtra [Indra's fight with Vtra] pp. 269-271.

Lied des Somatrunkenen [Song of him who is drunk with soma] pp. 271-273.

Die Beschwörung der Waffen vor der Schlacht [The invocation of the weapons before the battle] pp. 273-275.

An Parjanya, den Regengott : ein Gewitter [To Parjanya, the Rain God : a thunderstorm] pp. 275-276.

Die Frösche [The frogs] pp. 277-278.

Yama und Yam [Yama and Yam] pp. 278-280.

An [To] Savit / Am Abend [At night] pp. 280-281.

An [To] Varua : Vasihas Selbstgespräch [Vasiha's soliloquy] pp. 281-282.

Der Ursprung der Schöpfung [The beginning of creation] pp. 282-283.

[Anmerkungen zum Veda - Remarks on the Veda] pp. 283-287.

Anhang [Appendix] pp. 289-306.

Anmerkungen [notes] pp. 289-295.

Literatur- und Quellenhinweise [bibliographical notes and sources] pp. 296 to 304.

Mitarbeiter [contributors] pp. 305-306.

141 Emporia, commodities and entrepreneurs in Asian maritime trade, c. 1400 to 1750 / ed[ited] by Roderich Ptak and Dietmar Rothermund. - 1991. XI, 509 p. - Abbreviations [p. XIII], index pp. 491-509. ISBN 3-515-05962-8

From the table of contents :

Part I : Emporia and the regions of trade

Dietmar Rothermund : Asian emporia and European bridgeheads pp. 3-8.

Niels Steensgaard : Emporia : some reflections pp. 9-12.

Pin-tsun Chang : The first Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the fifteenth century pp. 13-28, Chinese glossary p. 27, Appendix : Tribute missions dispatched to China by major Southeast Asian states, 1370-1500 p. 28.

Ole Feldbæk : No ship for Tranquebar for twenty-nine years : or; the art of survival of a mid-seventeenth century European settlement in India pp.29-36.

S. Arasaratnam : Merchants of Coromandel in trade and entrepreneurship, circa 1650-1700 pp. 37-51.

John E. Wills, Jr. : China's farther shores : continuities and changes in the destination ports of China's maritime trade, 1680-1690 pp. 53-77, table Chinese shipping arriving at Batavia, 1680-1694 p. 63.

Pat II : The flow of specific commodities

Haraprasad Ray : Bengal's textile products involved in Ming trade during Cheng Ho's voyages to the Indian Ocean and identification of the hitherto undeciphered textiles pp.82-93, Chinese glossarry p. 93.

Geneviève Bouchon : Notes on the opium trade in Southern Asia during the precolonial period pp. 97-106.

Om Prakash : Restrictive trade regimes : VOC and the Asian spice trade in the seventeenth century pp. 107-126.

Gerrit Knaap ; Luc Nagtegaal : A forgotten trade : salt in Southeast Asia, 167 to 813 pp. 127-157, 4 charts, 11 tables.

Stephen Tseng-Hsin Chang : Commodities imported to the Chang-chou region of Fukien during the late Ming period : a preliminary analysis of the tax lists found in Tsung-hsi-yang k'ao pp. 159-194, Tax lists : I. Medicinal materials pp. 164-171, II. Aromatics pp. 172-173, III. Utensils and decorative materials pp. 173-176, IV. Construction and handicraft materials pp. 176-178, V. Clothing materials pp. 178-180, VI. Animal skins pp. 180-182, VII. Minerals pp. 182-183, VIII. Foodstuffs pp. 183-185, IX. Daily-use commodities pp. 185 to 186, An analysis of the tax lists pp. 186-189, Chinese glossary pp. 190 to 194.

Roderich Ptak : China and the trade in tortoise-shell (Sung to Ming periods) pp. 195-229, 6 tables, Chinese glossary pp. 228-229.

Hans Ulrich Vogel, with the research assistance of Sabine Hieronymus : Cowry trade and its role in the economy of Yünnan, the ninth to the middle of the seventeenth century pp. 231-251, Appendix: 2 tables, Chinese glossary pp. 258-159, Map 1: Trading routes between Yünnan, Burma and Bengal, c. 1200-1500 p. 260, Map 2: Trading routes between Yünnan, Burma and Northern Thailand, late nineteenth and early twentieth century p. 261, Map 3: The province of Yünnan, boundaries of 1582 p. 262.

Thomas O. Höllmann : Formosa and the trade in venison and deer skins pp. 263-290, 1 drawing, 1 table, Appendix 1: Discours ende Cort verhaal, van't Eylant Formosa, ondersocht ende beschreven, door den Eerwaardingen D. Georgius Candidius [Remarks on and short description of the island of Formosa, studied and described by the Honourable D Georgius Candidus] pp. 276-278, Appendix 2: Reekening van de hartejacht in strickken, beginnende van de maent October A. 1638 tot Martius 1639 [Invoice for the deer hunt with traps from October 1638 to March 1639] pp. 278-281, Appendix 3: Letter from Robertus Junius to Antonio van Dienem of October 23rd 1640: Extract p. 281, Appendix 5: Provenance of Venison and Deerskins pp. 283 to 285, Appendix 6: Trade in venison between Formosa and the China Coast pp. 286 to 289, Appendix 7: Trade in deerskins between Formosa and Japan pp. 289 to 290, Glossary of Chinese characters p. 290.

George B. Souza : Ballast goods : Chinese maritime trade in zinc and sugar in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries pp. 291-315, 3 tables.

Leonard Blussé : In praise of commodities : an essay on the cross-cultural trade in edible bird's-nests pp. 317-335, Chinese glossary p. 335.

Part III : Entrepreneurs: Asians and Europeans

Tapan Raychaudhuri : The commercial entrepreneur in pre-colonial India : aspirations and expectations; a note pp. 339-351.

Ashin Das Gupta : Changing faces of the maritime merchant pp. 353-362.

K. S. Mathew : Khwaja Shams-ud-din Giloni : a sixteenth century entrepreneur in Portuguese India pp. 361-371.

Ng Chin-Keong : The case of Ch'en I-Lao : maritime trade and overseas Chinese in Ch'ing policies, 1717-1754 pp. 373-400, Chinese glossary p. 399 to 400.

Sanjay Subrahmanyam : An Augsburger in Ásia Portuguesa : further light on the commercial world of Ferdinand Cron, 1587-1624 pp. 401-425, Appendix : Letters of Ferdinand Cron to the Conde de Vidigueira pp. 423-425.

Anthony Disney : The viceroy as entrepreneur : the Count of Linhares at Goa in the 1630s pp. 427-444.

Jurrien van Goor : Merchant in royal service : Constant Phaulkon as Phraklang in Ayuthaya, 1683-1688 pp. 445-465, Drawing: The house of the French ambassadors in Ayuthaya (La Loubère, Royaume de Siam) p. 454[a], Map of Ayuthaya about 1680 (La Loubère, Royaume de Siam) p. 454[b].

Appendix : The discussions of the papers presented at the Heidelberg Symposium pp. 469-490.

Index pp. 491-509.

142 Materials for an edition and study of the Pia- and Oha-Nijjuttis of the Svetâmbara Jain tradition / Willem B. Bollée.

[I. Pda indices]. - 1991. XV, 160 p. ISBN 3-515-05794-3

Nijjuttis are metrical memory-aids in Prkrit for the monastic teacher of the ancient (8th cent. B.C.) and still living religion of the Jains. They contain the topics to be treated in class and are, therefore, of considerable interest for the intellectual history of India and the development of middle Indo-Aryan languages. Yet, in this field little has been done since Leumann's epoch-marking beginnings in the late 19th century. In 1974, Mette edited, translated and commented upon one third of the Oha-Nijjuttis, i.e. the part dealing with the monk's daily almsround. In order to link up with this fresh start, it seemed fitting to make arrangements for a complete edition, also of the related Pia-Nijjuttis with a list of all quarter stanzas. This list, to which some parallels from other Prkrit works have been added, is meant as a help for a future critical edition of all Nijjutis and Bhyas.

143 Veda-Lakaa : Vedic ancillary literature : a descriptive bibliography / compiled by K. Parameswara Aithal. - 1991. II, 725 p. ISBN 3-51505795-1

Pandit Aithal has to his credit not only that he has reminded us of the multifaceted importance of the Veda-Lakaa texts. He has done much more, viz. given us an excellent tool for research which proves to be a most reliable source of information on the available manuscripts, the existing editions and the published literature on them, and it is a tool which designedly and most efficiently paves the way for what may well lead to something like the renaissance in studies in this branch of Sanskrit literature. The group of ancillary Vedic texts, in South India referred to by the term Veda-Lakaa, was given the attention due to it both by scholars in India and the West until the first half of our century. But since then they have been virtually forgotten.

144 Die Sprachenpolitik der Muslim-League-Regierung und die Entstehung der Bengali-Sprachbewegung in Ostbengalen, 1947-1956 / von Satya N[arayan] Bhowmik. - 1993. XII, 408 p. ISBN 3-515-06383-8

In this work, the author discusses the language conflict in Pakistan from 1947 to 1956, which had been of great importance for the search for identity. This search for identity took, in the main part, place via the language because the government tried to impose an official language "from above". This historical treatise extensively and precisely describes the political discussion along with its socio-economic implications. The author clearly indicates in which way language can be used and misused as a political means in language conflicts.

145 Islam and Indian regions / ed. by Anna Libera Dallapiccola and Stephanie Zingel-Avé Lallemant. - 1993. ISBN 3-515-06272-6

1. Texts. - XI, 535 p.

2. References and documentation. - VI, 118 p., 55 plates.

This publications contains the papers presented at an international seminar, which took place in Heidelberg from 17th to 21st July, 1989. The two volumes comprise 29 articles on various aspects ranging from religious, political, language-related, geographical, literary to architectural topics with a comprehensive index, drawings and plates:

Vol. I : Texts

Annemarie Schimmel : Introduction pp. 1-6.

Joseph Arlinghaus : Varieties of Islamic expression in the Mughal province of Kabul in the 16th century pp. 7-29.

S. Jamal Malik : 16th century Mahdism : the Rawanya movement among Pakhtun tribes pp. 31-59, Appendix 1 : Family tree of Bâyazîd Anârî, leader of Rawaniyya p. 57-59.

Catherine B. Asher : The architecture of Murshidabad : regional revival and Islamic continuity pp. 61-74.

Richard M. Eaton : Mughal religious culture and popular Islam in Bengal pp. 75-86.

Perween Hasan : Temple niches and mirbs in Bengal pp. 87-94.

Asim Roy : The interface of Islamization, regionalization and syncretization : the Bengal paradigm pp. 95-128.

M. R. Tarafdar : An indigenous source for Bengal Sufism pp. 129-136.

Daniela Bredi : Shiism's political valence in medieval Deccani kingdoms pp. 137-153.

Franco Coslovi : About peculiarities of Sufism in India, Muammad Gsdirz and the Ni'matullh in the Deccan pp. 155-167.

Carl W. Ernst : The Khuldabad-Burhanpur axis, and local Sufism in the Deccan pp. 169-183.

George Michell : Firuzabad : palace city of the Bahmanis pp. 185-191. - Further reading : The Firuzabad site p. 190, Bahmani history, in particular the reign of Firuz Shah pp. 190-191, Persian architecture p. 191.

Attilio Petruccioli : "Ad quadratum" : notes on town planning pp. 193-202.

Hugh van Skyhawk : Vaiava perceptions of Muslims in 18th century Maharashtra pp. 203-215.

André Wink : Islamic society and culture in the Deccan pp. 217-237.

Ali S. Asani : Folk romance in Sufi poetry from Sind pp. 229-237.

Sajida S. Alvi : Mahar-i-Shjahni and the Mughal province of Sind : a discourse on political ethics pp. 239-258.

Christopher Shackle : Early vernacular poetry in the Indus valley : its contexts and its character pp. 259-289.

Mehrdad Shokoohy : Architecture of the Muslim trading communities in India pp. 291-319.

Muzaffar Alam : Religion and politics in Awadh society 17th and early 18th centuries pp. 321-349.

Patricia Bahree Barylski : Painting in Avadh in the 18th century pp. 351-366, bibliography pp. 365-366.

Rosie Llewelly-Jones : Lucknow under the Shia Nawbs 1775-1856 pp. 367 to 375.

Francis Robinson : Scholarship and mysticism in early 18th century Awadh pp. 377-398, 3 tables.

Bruce Lawrence : Biography and the 17th century Qdirya of North India pp. 399-415.

Denis Matringe : "The future has come near, the past is far behind" : a study of aix Fard's verses and their Sikh commentaries in the Adi Granth pp. 417 to 443.

Michael W. Meister : Indian Islam's lotus throne : Kaman and Khatu Kalan pp. 445-452.

Susan Bayly : The limits of Islamic expansion in South India pp. 453-490, Appendix : Muslim cult saints and Suf personalities in South India pp. 486 to 490 : Section 1 : Figures from an explicitly Islamic historical tradition pp. 486 to 487, Section 2 : Cult saints placed within a Hindu sacred landscape pp. 488-490.

Stephen Frederic Dale : Islamic architecture in Kerala : a preface to a future study pp. 491-495.

David Shulman ; Sanjay Subrahmanyam : Prince of poets and ports : Citakkti, the Maraikkyars and Ramnad, ca. 1690-1710 pp. 497-535.

Vol. II : References and Documentation

Index pp. 1-35.

List of works as cited by the authors pp. 37-75.

The authors pp. 77-85.

List of drawings related to the articles pp. 87-88.

List of photos related to the articles pp. 89-93.

Drawings pp. 95-118.

Plates I-LV.

146 Nuwara Eliya : "Hill station" und zentraler Ort im Hochland der Insel Ceylon (Sri Lanka) [Nuwara Eliya : "Hill station" and central town in the highlands of the Island of Ceylon] / von [by] Monika Bührlein. - 1991. XXXII, 476 p., 44 Tafeln [plates], 8 Anhänge [appendices], outlook and summary pp. 434-438, Literatur [bibliography] pp. 439-476. ISBN 3-515-06035-9

The authoress describes the development of the only "hill station" in Ceylon from its founding in the early 19th century up to the present. She analyzes developments and changes and studies the geo-medical, biometeorogical and social factors influencing the foundation of the town and the life of the Euro-peans who used to stay there.

147 A word index of old Tamil cakam literature / by Thomas Lehmann and Thomas Malten. - 1992. X, 425 p. ISBN 3-515-05814-1

The "Word Index of old Tamil cakam literature" lists for the first time all the word forms contained in the earliest literary works of the ancient Tamil culture in South India. It is preceded by an introduction which elucidates the principles of text selection and word segmentation.

148 Britische Herrschaft auf indischem Boden : landwirtschaftliche Transformation und ökologische Destruktion des "Central Doab" ; 1801-1854 [British rule on Indian soil : agrarian transformation and ecological destruction of the "Central Doab" ; 1801 - 1854] / von [by] Michael Mann. - 1992. IX, 240 p. - Karte [map] 1 : Landwirtschaftliche Situation um 1800 [Agricultural situation around 1800] p. 112, Karte [map] 2 : Die Rodungen bis ca. 1850 [cultivation till ca. 1850] p. 141, Graphik [graph]: Ausdehnung der landwirtschaftlich genutzten Fläche 1808-1910 [Proportion of the land under cultivation 1808 to 1910] p. 125, Abkürzungsverzeichnis [List of abbreviations] p. VII, Literaturverzeichnis [bibliography] pp. 209-229 : Unveröffentlichte Manuskripte und Landkarten [unpublished manuscripts and maps] pp. 209-211, Publizierte Quellen [published sources] pp. 211-216, Forschungsliteratur [research literature] pp. 217-229, index pp. 230-234, English summary pp. 235-240.

ISBN 3-515-06125-8

This study aims at contributing to research in early British-Indian economic history, in particular to agrarian history, in the framework of the colonial transformation of Indian agriculture. The author points out the relationship between economic development and ecological change, especially in the course of the deforestation of the North Indian Doab of the Ganges and Jamuna rivers in the first half of the nineteenth century.

149 Nationalstaat und Sprachkonflikte in Süd- und Südostasien [National state and language conflicts in South and Southeast Asia] / herausgegeben. von [edited by] Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam und [and] Dietmar Rothermund. - 1992. XIII, 228 p. - Index pp. 221-228, A map of Sri Lanka [p. 229], Karte Indonesien [map of Indonesia] [p. 231], Karte Philippinen [map of the Philippines] [p. 233]. ISBN 3-515-06118-55

From the table of contents:

Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam und [and] Dietmar Rothermund : Einleitung [Introduction] pp. 1-21, English summary pp. 22-24.

Sudipta Kaviraj : Writing, speaking, being : language and the historical formation of identities in India pp. 25-68, figs. pp. 32, 52, glossary of Bengali terms p. 65, [deutsche Zusammenfassung] p. 66-68.

Satya Bhowmik : Die Bengali-Sprachbewegung und die Geburt Bangladeshs [The Bengali language movement and the emergence of Bangladesh] pp. 69 to 98, English summary pp. 99-100.

Thomas Prinz : Der sinhalesische Sprachnationalismus [The Sinhalese language nationalism] pp. 101-124, English summary pp. 125-126.

Dagmar Hellmann-Rajanayagam : Tamilen, Tamilsprache und Tamilidentität = Tamilnationalismus? [Tamils, Tamil language and Tamil identity = Tamil nationalism?] pp.127-154, English summary pp. 155-156.

Holk Dengel : Entwicklung der Bahasa Indonesia und ihr Verhältnis zu den Regionalsprachen Indonesiens [The development of Bahasa Indonesia and its relation to the regional languages of Indonesia] pp. 166-181, tables p. 181, English summary pp. 182-183.

Reinhard Wendt : Sprachenvielfalt und Nationalsprache auf den Philippinen während Kolonialzeit und Unabhängigkeit [Language diversity and the national language in the Philippines during colonial times and Independence] pp. 185 to 218, English summary pp. 219-220.

Index pp. 221-228.

Karten [maps] (am Ende des Bandes) [at the back of the volume]:

Karte Sri Lanka, zu : Artikel Prinz und Hellmann-Rajanayagam [map of Sri

Lanka, supplement to the articles by Prinz and Hellmann-Rajanayagam] [p. 229].

Karte Indonesien, zu : Artikel Dengel [map of Indonesia, supplement to the article by Dengel] [p. 231].

Karte Philippinen, zu : Artikel Wendt [map of the Philippines, supplement to the article by Wendt] [p. 233].

150 Pakistan : Zweite Heidelberger Südasiengespräche [Pakistan : Second Heidelberg Talks on South Asia] / Herausgegeben von [edited by] Dieter Conrad und [and] Wolfgang-Peter Zingel. - 1992. IX, 162 p. ISBN 3-515-06168-1

Verzeichnis der häufigsten Abkürzungen [list of the most frequently used abbreviations] pp. 158-159, Liste der Teilnehmer [list of particpants] pp. 160 to 162.

This volume contains the papers presented at a conference in summer 1991 along with summaries of the ensuing discussions. This time, Pakistan was the focus of interest whereas the first conference of this type dealt with India (cf. Vol. 135 of this series). Again, scholars, journalists, representatives of the Foreign Office, from industry, political foundations and cultural institutions gathered to talk about their experiences in the country and to hold discussions according to their field of specialisation. Thus, current information and the discussion of long-term perspectives were combined.

From the table of contents :

Karl Jettmar : Die pakistanische Nation pp. 1-7.

Diskussion nach dem Referat von Karl Jettmar [Discussion after the paper by Karl Jettmar] pp. 8-13.

Lothar Lutze : Zur sprachlichen und literarischen Ausgangssituation Pakistans [On Pakistan's linguistic and literary starting point] pp. 14-16.

Diskussion nach dem Referat von L. Lutze [Discussion after the paper by Lothar Lutze] pp. 17-20.

Dietrich Reetz : Strukturelle Konstanten der pakistanischen Innenpolitik [Structural constant factors in the Pakistani internal policy] pp. 21-29.

Diskussion nach dem Referat von D. Reetz [Discussion after the paper by D. Reetz] pp. 30-32.

Dieter Conrad : Quis custodiet custodes? : Zur Verfassungslage Pakistans nach der Parlamentsauflösung und Entlassung der Regierung Bhutto 1990 [Quis custodiet custodes? : On Pakistan's constitutional situation after the dissolution of parliament and the dismissal of the Bhutto government 1990] pp. 33-51.

Diskussion nach dem Referat von D. Conrad [Discussion after the paper by D. Conrad] pp. 52-57.

Petra Eisenreich : Die Situation in Sindh zu Beginn der 90-er Jahre [The situation in Sindh after the 90s] pp. 58-64.

Diskussion nach dem Referat von P. Eisenreich [Discussion after the paper by P. Eisenreich] pp. 65-68.

Munir D. Ahmed : Islamisierung in Pakistan [Islamisation in Pakistan] pp. 69 to 76.

S. Jamal Malik : Traditionale islamische Institutionen und muslimischer Staat im Spannungsverhältnis : Stiftungen, Almosen und religiöse Schulen [Traditional Islamic institutions and the Muslim state in an atmosphere of tension : foundations, alms and religious schools] pp. 77-82.

Diskussion nach den Referaten von M. Ahmed und J. Malik [Disucssion after the papers by M. Ahmed and J. Malik] pp. 83-86.

Wolfgang-Peter Zingel : Pakistans Wirtschaft zu Beginn der 90er Jahre [Pakistan's economy at the beginning of the 90es] pp. 87-95.

Frithjof Kuhnen : Differenzierungen der Landwirtschaft in Pakistan [Differentiations in Pakistan's agriculture] pp. 96-99.

Diskussion nach den Referaten von P. Zingel und F. Kuhnen [Discussion after the papers by P. Zingel and F. Kuhnen] pp. 100-102.

Christine Gieraths : Islamische Institutionen in der Wirtschaft [Islamic economic institutions] pp. 103-106.

Georg M. Pott : Ausländische Investitionen in Pakistan : Erfahrungen aus der Praxis [Foreign investments in Pakistan : Experiences from the practice] pp. 107-111.

Diskussion nach den Referaten von C. Gieraths und G. Pott [Discussion after the papers by C. Gieraths and G. Pott] pp. 112-114.

Citha D. Maaß : Die indisch-pakistanischen Beziehungen im Schatten des Kashmir-Konflikts und die internationalen Bemühungen um nukleare Nichtweiterverbreitung [Indo-Pakistani relations in the shadow of the Kashmir conflict and the international efforts regarding non-proliferation] pp. 115-128.

Diskussion nach dem Referat von C. Maaß [Discussion after the paper by C. Maaß] pp. 129-132.

Karlernst Ziem : Zur Rolle Pakistans im Afghanistankonflikt [On Pakistan's role in the Afghanistan conflict] pp. 133-146.

Diskussion nach dem Referat von K. Ziem [Discussion after the paper by K. Ziem] pp. 147-149.

Alfred Vestring : Zum Stand der deutsch-pakistanischen Beziehungen [On German-Pakistani relations] pp. 150-152.

Diskussion nach dem Referal von A. Vestring [Discussion after the paper by A. Vestring] pp. 153-156.

Abschlußdiskussion [Concluding discussion] p. 157.

Verzeichnis der häufigsten Abkürzungen [List of the most frequently used abbreviations] pp. 158-159.

Liste der Teilnehmer [List of participants] pp. 160-162.

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