Heidelberg, September 9 - 14, 2002
Panel 26 papers
services in Rural Karnataka - A perspective from Development Studies
In the Development processes of modern world, South Asia has been designated as developing region and certainly it needs that it has to go a long way before catching up with the developed regions of the world. South Asia even today is a land of villages for example India consist of more than half a million villages. Hence any rural development would be meaningless if it does not extend to vast network of rural settlement of South Asia which is a region of immense diversity of language, religion, race caste and regional imbalance. However since the decolonization of South Asia, the National Governments of the region have been making sincere efforts and attempts for formulating of an integrated rural health policies.
Accesses to medical service has been considered as one of the most basic and significant variables in the Rural Development. It is rightly said that, health is wealth, a sound mind rest in sound body. More than education, the accessibility to medical service should be on top priority in rural area. Rural India is deeply embodied in tradition and blind belief which have hindered the health of rural people. Besides, poverty and ignorance have further complicated the problems. The progress so far achieved in providing medical services to rural area appears to be encouraging. Though all the member countries of the United Nation Organization were signatories to the declaration of U.N.O, Resolution of Health for all by 2000 AD, it has to go a long way to achieve it particularly in rural area.
In this a paper an attempt will be made to study the rural health services with particular reference to NGOs in rural area of Karnataka. Karnataka emerged as one of the United Linguistic states on November 1st of 1956. The paper tries to document the progress made and the problems which persist in providing health services to the rural folk of Karnataka from 1956-2000. As a scholar in development studies, I intended to approach the problems against the broad based background of South Asia. The impact of globalization, privatization and liberalization of the economy on rural development with particular reference to medical services will be discussed in this paper.
consciousness, national awakening in the Model State of Mysore (1902-
trends in Municipal Administration in Karnataka in the context of Colonialism
a case study of Bangalore City Municipality.
Bangalore capital of Karnataka State is the fastest growing urban center
in Asia. It is also one of the important centers of Information Technology
and Scientific research in the world. These are the recent developments
in the history of Bangalore city. In the late medievel period Bangalore
began as a small town with a fortress and a center of a locality chief.
It was incorporated in the Mysore Kingdom and remained as a small urban
area until the advent of the British Colonial control in about 1800 A.D.
The present paper examines the changing trends in the Municipal Administration
of Bangalore city from 1831 to 1947 during this period the foundation
and future glory of Bangalore was laid. The Archivel materials would be
used for preparing this research paper. It is also intended to connect
the colonial past with the present as far as Municipal Administration
Administration in the Native State of Mysore during Colonial period (1831
Colonial period witnessed modernisation and reorganisation of all branches of administration both in British India and the Native States. The present paper makes an attempt to evaluate the Excise administration in the native state of Mysore from 1831 to 1947. From 1831 to 1881 the Najive State was under the direct colonial rule and from 1881 to 1947 it was under indirect colonial rule, when the Maharajas were in position of power.
The term Excise refers to sources of revenue derived from the manufacture and sale of various kinds of liquors and drugs. After land revenue excise was important source revenue to the state. The liquors consisted of date-toddy, bagabni-toddy, beer and akkibhoja. The state also imported foreign liquors from America, Europe and Australia and these constituted foreign spirits and Liquors. Ganja, Opium and Cocaine were drugs manufactured and taxed in the state. The paper analysis the nature of excise revenue, the distillery system, incidence of excise revenue, and the structure of excise administrative machinery. The Archival material preserved in Kamataka State Archives Bangalore would be used.
Economy & Women Empowerment in Modern Karnataka
Gender issues have been explicitly included in Policy and Programmes of central and state governments in India during the decades of 1980s and 1990s as an outcome of the pressures at National and International level, to bring the women folk into the mainstream. The parochial development process was then reshaped to include, the marginalised and the excluded groups into it to attain gender justice and gender empowerment. Karnataka is better placed in terms of gender development in the country (It occupied 5th place, but there are sharp regional variations within the state). The state is committed to promote women empowerment through the inclusion of women in formal political process, the creation of institutions to promote womens access to resources and economic power and to education and knowledge. But it is crucial to know whether the state benevolence alone is adequate enough to empower women in the existing social structure. This paper makes a modest attempt to put forth some grass roots realities in this direction.
Society and Women Empowerment:
The value ridden culture leads to conceptualization of a female baby as a burden on the familys resources and to reduce the present as well as future The value ridden culture leads to conceptualization of a female baby as a burden on the familys resources and to reduce the present as well as future burden the female babies are sold or are denied entry into the world. (The declining sex ratio in the 0-6 age group in recent 2001 census is an indication of it) The perpetuation of domestic violence, against women in various forms including wife beating, the dowry deaths, the son preferences at household level and harassment at work places all these are enough to support the perpetuation of patriarchy. The religious and cultural norms that treat women as means of reproduction, the existence of evil practices such as Devdasis and `sex workers, `the naked parading of Dalit(low caste) women indicate how social empowerment of women is still a myth.
Wage, Labour and Empowerment:
Womens access to wage labour is expected to promote their empowerment as it increases their bargaining strength in the family. But, these low paid jobs have not been able to shift the status of women from supplementary earners so main earners. They do not have a right to spend their own earnings.
On the other hand, the technological advancement in agriculture has severely affected womens participation in production process. The modern system of knowledge which is highly external in the rural community is beyond the reach of rural women and this has resulted in their slow but steady withdrawal from production process, loosening their control over the production asset i.e, the land. Women from small and marginal farmers families are now joining the wage labour market, who earlier dominated the cultivation process. The new wage work has increased the burden of work on them. Women are subject to triple exploitation (in the household sector in the subsistence sector and in the capitalist sectorS) On the contrary, the new job opportunities that generate higher levels of income are not accessible to them due to their low human capital formation.
Empowerment-Development of Capabilities:
Empowerment hrough State Benevolence:
Special programs for women.
These are directed towards increasing the access of women to resources and assets to promote their economic empowerment, provide them legal support, and promote their political empowerment. The reservation of 30 percent of seats in local self-government at grass roots level is a step in this direction. Positions are also reserved for women in academic and administrative committees. But to a large extent, this has not ensured their effective participation in the decision making process. (There may be few successful stories) For example, in the Panchayat system, women members exceed their reservation quota (They are 36 percent in zilla panchayat, 40 percent in taluka panchayat, and 44 percent in village panchayats). But their participation in decision making is ver low ( This has been brought out by many studies at micro level ) The social constraints are more powerful at these levels. Though these efforts have not brought substantial change, but they are largely responsible to bring about an awakening in this direction.
Some organizations state sponsored as well as nongovernmental organizations are also working for socio-political empowerment of women. The approach is now shifted from individual to group. The concept of Self help groups has emerged and has proved to be viable. A good beginning is made in this regard. These Self help groups have developed womens access to credit institutions and markets.
The state efforts to promote gender empowerment alone are not adequate enough break through the patriarchal structures. The asymmetrical social relations need to be changed through gender sensitization and gender awareness. The `dominant male group should be willfully prepared to share the power to empower the dominated. For this change to occur there must be a social revolution with transformation of age-old institutions that have suppressed and ill-treated women over the centuries. Therefore, what is needed is a strong support from the modern institutions to state action coupled with an attitudinal change in the mindsets of men at the grass roots level to empower women. An awakening among women and their collective action in the form of autonomous movements and organizations may go a long way in bringing about the desired change in these institutions and attitudes.
Dalit Movement in Modern Karnataka
In this paper, the term Datit is used to include two sections of society 1. The untouchable working class outside the traditional Vama or Jati structure. 2. Similar groups are part of the structure but have similarities with the untouchable workers and producers. Karnataka has a unique distinction of having initiated a movement to establish socioreligious equality and justice, which included the untouchables. The movement was launched in the 12th century A.D. by the Veerashaiva Sharanas under the leadership of Basaveshwara. Kannada was the medium used to communicate with the common people and a revolutionary literature was produced in that language. As in the case of Indian polity, the traditional sankara preventing - state power crushed this Vama sankara movement. After all, state in India, in pre-modern period hardly acted as a social legislator. Even after 800 years of Basava revolution the general condition of Dalits has remained the same. There was hardly any mobility in the structure. Dasa movement in the 16th century also discussed this problem. The national movement, particularly under Gandhiji, unification movement and prolifiration of ideas of Phule and Baba Saheb Ambedkar along with Marxist ideas in the 30s and 40s of the past century prepared the ground for Dalit movement after the unification of Karnataka in 1956.
It is interesting to note that the Dalit movement started by Prof. B.Krishnappa, a college teacher in 1972. After nearly three decades, the movement is gathering strength from one decade to another. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the ideology, approach and impact of the movement from 1972 to 2002.
Role of Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation in Rural Development
Rural Development is a composite and complex phenomenon; it involves interplay of various components like progress in material production, Agriculture, Rural industries as well as the development of infrastructure like Roads, Transportation, Education &Health services in order to bring about qualitative change. Among the variables in rural development, the role of transportation cannot be under estimated. In fact the backwardness of a rural settlement in South Asia is mostly linked with access to transportation. On many occasions the stagnancy of rural economy and other allied aspects of rural life are due to the lack of proper transportation facility. In this paper an attempt will be made to show the relationship between the rural development in Karnataka and the part played in it by the access to transportation with particular reference to a public sector enterprise in the region since 1951. The paper concentrate on passenger transportation.
Karnataka emerged as a united linguistic state on November 1956. On 1.8.1961, KSRTC was established in Public Sector with 124 Buses, today after forty years, the Corporation consists of 11,936 buses and 69,000 workers and every day the Corporation operates nearly 3.77 million Kms. KSRTC has been considered as a model to other similar public sector corporations in India. Out of 11,936 buses nearly 60% of the buses are being operated in rural areas, connecting the village with Hobli and Taluk in districts. Karnataka at present has 25 districts and in all the districts KSRTC operates its buses.
The paper tries to examine in what way KSRTC has contributed to the rural development. From the available sources, it is possible to establish the link between rural development and KSRTC. With the access to KSRTC facilities innumerable villages of Karnataka have experienced change in different directions. The paper tries to identify them with specific illustrations. As a Research Scholar, Department of Studies in History, Manasa Gangotri, Mysore University, Mysore and also Deputy Chief Labour Welfare Officer in KSRTC working for Ph D on the topic entitled KSRTC. Its History, Present status and future prospects. I hope to bring out the linkage between transportation and rural development in this part of South Asia.
Reforms in Colonial Mysore - From Tradition to Modernity (1800-1947)
Gender issues are center to social history of any country or region. In all gender issues women accupy vital position. From family to work place, her role in domestic and economic system is identified as significant in recent times. The study of women in South Asian History in general, Karnataka in particular is of recent development. Karnataka historiography doesnt reveal much of women studies. There is no dearth of material for undertaking research on gender issues at the regional level namely Karnataka. Karnataka offers interesting sources in Kannada and English languages. In this paper an attempt will be made to use both the sources.
Colonial Mysore (1800-1947) witnessed reforms in different directions, embracing all components and sections of society. Colonial period in Mysore had three significant land marks (1) 1800 to 1831 : (2) 1813 to 1881: (3) 1881 to 1947. The first phase was marked by mostly traditional setup, where gender reforms were hardly visible. In the second phase, there was a direct colonial control in Mysore under the British commissioners. Two eminent British commissioners, namely, Mark Cubbon and Bowring initiated reforms on modern lines in many sectors of Mysore society. As far as gender reforms were concerned this period may be termed as the period of transition. The third period between 1881-1947 was remarkable in gender reforms when the Maharajas of Mysore and their eminent Dewans introduced gender reforms. This paper makes an attempt to identify and describe forces and factors which were responsible for gender reforms in the native state during the colonial period. From royal women to women belong to untouchable caste, from Muslim to Christian women will be included in the study. Besides, the impact of non-Brahmin and backward class movements, as well as democratic and national movements in Colonial Mysore with particular reference to gender reforms will also be examined.
Monopoly and New Economic Policy in Modern Karnataka -
History of passenger transportation in Modern Karnataka is fascinating, Karnataka was unified in 1956 and by that time the concept of State Monopoly in Passenger transportation sector was well grounded. After 1956, in tune with national economic policy mixed concept was in operation in passenger transportation also. Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation enjoyed monopoly and also state financing to run the services (Operations). However, the private operators were also allowed by the Government State Monopoly had its benefits and drawback it had supporters as well as opposers. In about 1990, all over India the new economic policy with emphasis on privatization and market economy started taking routes. State Monopoly Institutions like KSRTC had to bow down to these forces. In this paper an attempt has been made to address the following questions.
Was State monopoly from 1956 and 1990 Advantageous to the consumers?
Records in KSRTC and the Karnataka State Archives at Bangalore would be consulted for preparing the paper.
Geography of Cauvery Basin In Karnataka
Sacred geography may be defined as utilization of space by man for his spiritual life. Usually unique and beautiful places in the mountains and on the river banks have attracted man to establish sacred places. In India, rivers have been considered as sacred from time immemorial. In South India river Cauvery and its tributaries are holy to the people who are living in the basin. In the course of history many holy places emerged in the Cauvery basin. In this paper an attempt will be made to study some sacred places in the Cauvery basin with particular reference to geographical and sacred environment. Among them mention may be made of Srirangapatna, Talkadu, T.Narisipura, Hemmige, Gargeswari,Nanjanagud and Suttur.
The selected sacred places offer very interesting insights into the evolution of religious life, puranic traditions, theology and philosphy. Above all they provide the origin of priestly and scholarly brahmin settlements, on the banks of Cauvery and its tributaries. A special study of a famous monastery in the Cauvery basin namely Suttur Monastery is extremely fascinating. Cultural pluralism appears to have emerged in course of centuries in historical period in the sacred places mentioned above. Literary works, stala puranas and inscriptional data would be used for the study.
Freedom Struggle in Hyderabad Karnataka (1800-1956)
In the pre-unification period (before 1956) Hyderabad-Karnatak was that part of the region which was included in the native state of Hyderabad ruled by Nizam and where Kannada speaking people were predominant. In the present map of Kamataka, this region includes Bidar, Gulbarga and Raichur districts. In these districts of the former kingdom of Nizam. there were people who spoke Urdu, Marathi and Telugu. Hence, it was a multi lingual sub-region. Hindus were in majority but the ruler was a Muslim and Muslims constituted a strong minority in these districts. There was a small number of S~khs, Jams and Christians. Until these districts were incorporated into Karnataka in 1956, they remained backward in all fields when compared to other Kannada speaking districts.
This paper makes an attempt to analyse the nature and policy of the Nizam state and the response of mainly Kannada speaking people to the modern forces released during the British colonial period. The struggle for freedom was a dominant force. Within the context of autocratic police state with its indirect colonial control, the freedom struggle in Hyderabad-Kamataka assumed not only multi-dimensional character, but was also complex in nature. The freedom struggle in Hyderabad-karnataka took the form of fighting against feudalism and communalism. It was also a struggle for the establishment of Karnataka state based on linguistic homogeneity, within the broader context of Indian nationalism.
This paper makes an attempt to analyse all these forces and factors with particular reference to leadership, participation of common people in the democratic process and in the evolution of different ideologies, which emerged during this period, in the Hyderabad-Kaniataka region.
Christians in Coastal Karnataka during the Colonial Period (1800-1947
Coastal Karnataka in many ways is a distinct region when compared with the other parts of Karnataka. Its access to the sea from time immemorial had an impact in shaping the socioreligious and economic life of the people. Political powers in the other regions of Karnataka, especially above the Western Ghats, depended upon Coastal Karnataka for its overseas contacts. Commerce was a very important aspect in these contacts. As a result of its unique position it attracted rulers, administrators philosophers and poets from outside. Religious immigrants also came from outside. Among them the Konkani Christian ethnic group from the Konkan Coast was important.
Christianity in Coastal Kamataka has a very fascinating history. St. Thomas Christians (Syrian Christians) had contact with this region prior to the advent of the Portuguese in 1510 AD. From 1510-1800 some interesting developments took place here. Konkani Christians from Goa came and settled in this region. They were wholeheartedly welcomed by the local Hindu powers. In Anglo-Mysore relations, the Konkani Christians of Coastal Karnataka underwent difficult times, including the deliberate shifting of some Konkani Christians from the coastal region to Srirangapattana in Mysore by Tipu Sultan. The coastal region came under the British colonial rule in 1800.
During the colonial period (1800-1947 A.D.), the Konkani Christians prospered. They utilized all the facilities provided by the colonial government, which was Anglican Protestant in denomination while the Konkani Christians were Roman Catholic.
Another interesting development during the period was the arrival of the Basel Mission to the region in 1834 A.D. The colonial period offered protection and encouragement for an all round development of the Christian communities. Nationalism and Renaissance as well as the Gandhian Movement touched the life of the people in coastal Karnataka, including the Konkani Christians.
In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the socio-religious and economic growth of Konkani Christians as well as their dichotomy. Sources from Karnataka State Archives Bangalore, Tamil Nadu State Archives and British Library, London will be used in the study.
Issues in Kannada Folk Literature
Gender difference in the sense of male domination has been in existence in all the societies at all times.
In classical Kaiinada literature, an ideal woman is depicted as one who is submissive to man and accept the male domination
In contrast to this in folk literature the situation is different. In multi-cultural society the status of woman differs from one social group to another. It was probably evolved through time as depicted in folk literature.
In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the status of women as depicted in
Kannada folkliterature the following four major aspects are discussed:
1. Innocent submission:Accepting the male domination as the correct thing without being conscious of their exploitation
2.Helpless submission:Women are aware that they have been exploited but have no courage to oppose it; (suffer themselves)
3.Rebelling against male domination: Questioning the values, which discriminate them by realising the women power
4.Towards establishing equality:Equal status for both male and female and try to reconstruct the society with such factors asLingaita Rachane or Ubhaya Lingitva.
Dynamics of Electbral Politics in lndia:
After the congress split in 1969, the two factions emerged at the national level one led by the then P.M. Mrs. Gandhi and the other led by Mr. S. Nijalingappa, the then Congress President. The former came to be known as congress (R) and the latter came to be called as congress (0).
In the 1971 parliamentary election, the congress (R) did receive the massive mandate and Mrs Gandhis leadership became unassailable and unquestionable. The 1972 Assembly election in Karnataka had witnessed the swing in favour of congress(R).
The implementation of Land Reforms Act, poor-oriented programmes and effective governance and the mobilisation and consolidation of the Backward Classes and Scheduled Castes were the hallmarks of the congress regime in the State during 1970s.
The fall out of Devaraj Urs from the Indira Gandhi party in 1980 paved the way for Mr. Gundu Rao to form the Congress Government. His leadership had failed to get majority in the Assembly Election held in January 1983 For the first time newly emerged national party, the Janata Party emerged as the largest group and assumed office under the stewardship of Ramakrishna Hegde.
With a slender majority, the Hegde regime was subjected to severe political constraints and pressures. Hence he opted for the fresh poll in March 1985 and got a clean-cut mandate from the people. His regime highlighted the importance of value-based politics, democratic culture, decentralisation of power, and good governance. The new Panchayat Raj Act of 1983 became a landmark in strengthening rural local governmental system in Karnataka.
Under the affable and able leadership of Mr. Veerendra Patil, the congress came back to power in 1989. It ruled the state until 1994
In 1994, the Janata Dal obtained majority and formed the government under the Chief Ministership of H. D. Deve Gowda. After his entry into national politics in 1996, Mr. J. H. Patel became Chief Minister.
In 1999 Assembly Election people exhibited their inclination to change the ruling party. Hence, the congress became victorious and formed government in October 1999 under the Chief Ministership of Mr. S.M. Krishna.
paper addresses itself to the following questions:
Gandhiji in Karnataka - Revival of Traditional Industries in Colonial,
The Advent of Gandhiji on the National scene of freedom struggle was a landmark in the history of South Asia. Gandhiji was probably the culmination of Indian renaissance and reformation movement which had begun in the 19th Century. As a total leader he approached the problems of India in a comprehensive manner. He was not a mere nationalist, with exclusive interest in gaining independence for India. He touched every aspect of both external and internal life of the Indian. He was anti-thesis to Samrajya and very appropriately upheld Swarajya. Likewise he prepared Swadesito Videsi. This sums up Gandhijis concept of Pooma Swarajya. Gandhian economics was a considerable force in the nationalist ideology of India, which with the courage of conviction, gave a call to a revival of tracJitional industries of India. As a result, he generally opposed the Industrial Revolution of the West which was in the process of proliferation in India during the Gandhian Era (1920-47). In this paper an attempt will be made to analyse and evaluate the revival of traditional Industries in colonial Mysore under native rules.
Gandhiji and colonial Mysore met and interacted in a unique historical context. Gandhian Era in the context of colonial Mysore coincided with the dawn of Industrial Revolution with emphasis on Iron & Steel, Paper, Cement, Soap and other similar industries. State Capitalism was in full swing in the development of Industries of Mysore. In fact, Mysore earned the reputation as a Model State among the native states of India. At this juncture the arrival of Gandhiji and his sojourn and travels in colonial Mysore led to the revival of traditional industries as rulers of Mysore were fascinated by Gandhian economics. In this way the model of colonial Mysore became a mixture of the ideology of modern Industrial Revolution and Gandhian economics. The paper probes this impact of Gandhiji on colonial Mysore in a comprehensive manner. The Archival materials preserved in Karnataka State Government Archives at Bangalore and Mysore will be used for preparing this research paper.
in the Heritage of Karnataka.
Karnataka Heritage, broadly speaking is a synthesis of many traditions. Karnataka in historical times was a meeting ground of North Indian and South Indian cultural ideas. The concept of Linga is one of the prominent ideas received, developed and evolved by Kannadigas over many centuries. Siva is generally worshipped in two forms. One is Linga and another is the anthropomorphic form Originally, in the Vedic literature produced in the Indo-Gangetic region, it was associated with Parabrahma. Subsequently, it symbolizes the synthesis of the Trinity of Hinduism. Further in subsequent centuries generally it came to be recognized with the concept of Siva. In this paper, an attempt will be made to illustrate and elucidate how various sections of society in Karnataka looked at and worshipped the Linga form in theology, philosophy and social movements. For instance, it is possible to classify the Linga forms in Karnataka heritage like Samadhi Linga, Royal Linga, Linga associated with locality chiefs, canarisation of Linga nomenclature, Linga forms, Stharvara Linga, Ishta Linga, Bana Linga, Vishnu Linga, Shakta Linga and others
Of all the developments linked with Linga, the most prominent was the emergence of Lingayatism in the 12th CenturyA.D.Keeping the Linga in the forefront, a few saints of Kamataka under Basaveshwara, tried to establish a revolutionary social group in the region. The followers of these saints are called Lingayats and up to this day,they constitute a dominant caste group. The religious, philosophical and social rituals worship centred with Linga, will also be discussed in the present paper The Lingayats played a significant role by keeping Linga as symbol of Siva, in counteracting the challenge of Islam in Karnataka, Materials for this paper will be drawn from a variety of sources both Sanskrit and Kannada.
It is intended to visually present some of the rare specimens which are available at present and worshipped in various forms in Karnataka.
in Karnataka. Urban History of Mysore City 1881-2000.
Urban history is one of the fascinating areas of investigation attracting scholars in recent times. Urban centres in any period of history of any region generally signify two things 1. The economic prosperity of the region 2. The development of non-agrarian sector of the economy of the region. An urban centre may originate due to multiple causes. Fortress and military needs, religion, university and educational needs, mining, industries, ports, markets, commerce are some of the vital factors which may act as incentive for the origin of an urban centre. Karnataka was politically and administratively fragmented during the colonial period and this factor had rsulted in the lopsided development. Some fragments witnessed quick and prosperous growth of urban centres. Other fragments remained relatively backward in the growth of the cities. In 1800 Karnataka came under British colonialism and the urban growth became distinct around 1880 Karnataka was unified in 1956 as a result of the integration of Kannada-speaking-territorial fragments In this paper a case study of the urban history of Mysore city has been taken up for a broad but critical investigation.
In 1800 Mysore City was a village. In 1881 it acquired some features of a town. In 1947, it was a small city with a municipality. In 1956 further expansion of the city occurred From 1956 to 2000 the city witnessed a gradual but planned development adding new components of urbanisation.
In this paper an attempt has been made to examine the urban history of Mysore city in the light of three important theories of urban growth and the evolution of functional zones. They are 1. The sector theory as postulated by Homer Hoyt 2. The Multiple Nuclei theory as proposed by C.D Harris and E.L. Uliman and 3. The concentric theory suggested by E.W. Burgess. The source material for the present study has been gathered from Karnataka State Archives, with particular reference to the documents of Mysore city corporation. Other historical sources have also been utilised.
State Archives and Karnataka Studies
Archives is the store house of accurate and authentic information on every aspect of modem History. Archivs may take different physical forms such as paper, kadata , palm leaf sound- recording ,microfllm etc. They also belong to different categories such as files , maps diaries ,photographs books pamplets ,seals ,newspapers and periodicals ,letters of correspondence etc.
The largest collection of Archival materials relating to modem Kamataka is naturally found In the Kamataka State Archives at Bangalore. This was established in December 1973. It has two Divisional Offices one at Mysore (1984) and Dharwad(1987).
The Kamataka State Archives prosses has In Its custody observation valuable documents such as letters of Arthur Wellesley (Duke of Wellingeton) General Sir Mark Cubbonso bservation on Mr. Cottons report upon the insurrection in Coorg in I 939,the correspondence between the Court of Directors, London and Fort St. George, Madras ,the Draft Treaty of Seringapatam etc. The materials housed in the department provide original source materials for history students and scholars engaged in these research. The regular series of records available in Karnataka State Archives begins from the Administration of the Commissioners ie., 1834. There are also large number of documents in Marethi ,Persian, French and Urdu.
Among the most interssting possession In the Archives are Yelandur Kadatas.Kadatas are black books in which the native Government ,religous institutions and land-lords preserved details regarding their estate and also socio -religious matters related to their localities, Foreign Scholars have shown interest in the black books, For instance ,Prof. Dr. Nilambar Hatti from Sweden and James Hemiann from Denmark have tried to analyses the kadatas belonging to a feudal estate in southern Karnataka and have published research articles on them. Likewise Mr.N.M.H.Chancellor, a senior researcher at Cambridge University, U.K.,has visited the Archives many times and collected material related to his subject namely Native State Polity --Myore Model in the 19th Century.
Thus Kamataka State Archives Is a rich depository for Indian and foreign scholars who are interested in Kamatak Studies covering Modern period. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate some of the specific contribution of the Archives to Kamataka Studies.
Castes in South Asia: From ImmobIlity to Mobility
The study of any society or components of it involves the question of mobility. Mobility is a significant yardstick by which the fluidity and progress of a social system is measured. Traditional South Asian Society until the advent of British colonialism revealed more rigidity than mobility. In the colonial period, Modern Western forces and Christian Missionaries challenged the rigidity of the South Asian traditional society, particularly with relation to the existence of a large component of it, generally termed as Untouchables with varied nomenclatures. The Indian Renaissance leaders, Jyotibha phule. Mahatma Gandhiji and Dr.B.R.Ambedkar responded to this challenge and worked out a consensus in South Asian Society so as to reduce rigidity and to increase the tempo of Mobility.
In post-independence India since 1947, various policies, legislative actions and their enforcement have given a significant momentum to the process of mobility among the scheduled castes of South Asia. Karnataka, as part of South Asian region, emerged as a unified state of Kannada speaking people on November l, 1956. Scheduled Castes constitute a very important segment of Karnataka Society. They had come from different administrative and historical experience before 1956. Hence, there was a definite regional imbalance among the scheduled castes of Karnataka. The united Karnataka had to approach this problem with vision and wisdom. This paper makes an attempt to examine the extent of Mobility like spatial, political, social, economic, religious, intellectual, educational, achieved by the scheduled castes of Karnataka since 1956. Besides, it is intended to analyse the impact of recent trends like Globalization, privatisation. and Liberalisation on the Mobility of the Scheduled Castes, as well as the elements of disunity which have appeared in the Dalit Movement of Karnataka as a result of the implementation of the policy of Reservation for many decades.
| How to find us | Map | Information of the university library |
|| Staff | Search | Homepage of Uni-Heidelberg | Homepage of SAI |||| Webmaster ||