Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

Ritualbibliographie Mittelmeer und Nahost

Ritual and Ceremony
in the Ancient Mediterranean and Near East:
A Select Classified Bibliography (1970 - 1998)

K. C. Hanson
Fortress Press
Minneapolis, MN 55440-1209
© 1997-1998
hansonkc@augsburgfortress.org

MRZH-Ritual Tablet From Ancient Ugarit

Introduction

During the past twenty-five years, a large body of literature has developed analyzing the rites of the ancient world. This is first of all the product of both a growing number of ancient documents discovered and appearing in print. But it is also, I would argue, the result of a growing awareness about the importance of ritual and the appearance of a large body of theoretical studies in this area. Indeed, "ritual studies" has developed into a whole discipline with its own journal (Journal of Ritual Studies, since 1987). Ritual studies is a synthetic or integrative discipline, employing not only theology and history of religions, but anthropology, social psychology, art history, music history, archaeology, performance theory, as well as other disciplines. The introductory essays by Grimes (1987) and Zeusse (1987) will briefly orient the reader to the major issues (both in sec. 1 below).

Those in biblical studies, Classics, and the study of the ancient Near East can benefit greatly from attention to some of the theoretical discussions which have gone on recently, and I would suggest several reasons for raising our awareness. First, to understand the ancient peoples and their culture, more than linguistic and historical acumen is necessary. Ritual analysis focuses attention on rites which help expose the modern scholar to the fundamentals of ancient worldviews, symbols, values, and social organization. Second, cross-cultural analysis raises new questions for the researcher, both practical and theoretical. Third, ritual studies presses the reader of ancient documents for a "thicker description" (to use Geertz's expression) and a fuller analysis. And fourth, awareness of rituals in one culture can raise the question of how similar phenomena were handled in others.

Definining ritual is not an easy task; and as Grimes points out, most definitions are overly narrow and bereft of fruitful imagery. But he goes on to identify five key characteristics: repeated, sacred, formalized, traditional, and intentional (1995:60-61). The meanings of ritual, ritualizing, rite, and ceremony often overlap or are used as synonyms by different scholars. For heuristic purposes it may be useful to employ the term "rite" as the overarching category, "ritual" to refer to rites of passage, boundary crossing (status transformation or status reversal), and "ceremony" to refer to regular celebrations, feasts, and worship services which maintain and celebrate the group's boundaries (see Malina, Christian Origins and Cultural Anthropology, 1986:139-43). In a practical sense, the labels are not as important as defining those one uses, employing them with consistency, and demonstrating their analytic value for interpretation.

Most of the articles and books on ancient rituals do not employ "ritual studies" methodologies. They are translating key documents or passages, discussing the linguistic or historical problems in interpreting these documents, etc. But they often provide the starting points to press further into the performance aspects of these sources. New questions can be asked, different methods can be employed, fresh comparisons can be made, and fuller analyses can be developed. Theoretical awareness cannot produce new evidence, but it can open new avenues of exploration.

In the following bibliography I have begun with two introductory sections: 1. Theoretical Approaches and Overviews, and 2. Cross-Cultural Studies. Of all the sections, section 1 is the most "selective." I have attempted to limit this section to works that are widely quoted and have been influential in the history of the discussion. Section 2 is limited to those works which are broadly comparative of ancient societies; the more specific comparative pieces (e.g., Ugaritic and Israelite comparisons) are placed in one or the other section based on emphasis or the author's specialization (e.g., deMoor under Ugarit). The other sections are pragmatic groupings, organized by region. The dates covered here are 1970ó1996; but the dates are not absolutes at either end. Several jounals had not completed their volumes by October 1996 when I finished this; and when I found an item which preceded 1970, I included it if I thought it was necessary to the history of the discussion.


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Contents


Ritual Studies: Theoretical Approaches and Overviews

Ackerman, Robert. The Myth and Ritual School: J. G. Frazer and the Cambridge Ritualists. New York: Garland, 1991.

Alexander, Bobby C. "Ritual and Current Studies of Ritual: Overview." In Anthropology of Religion: A Handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995.

Ashley, Kathleen, ed. Victor Turner and the Construction of Cultural Criticism: Between Literature and Anthropology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ. Press, 1990.

Aune, Michael B. "The Subject of Ritual: Ideology and Experience in Action." In Religious and Social Ritual: Interdisciplinary Explorations, 147-73. M. B. Aune and V. DeMarinis, eds. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press, 1996.

van Baal, J. "Offering, Sacrifice and Gift." Numen 23 (1976):161-78.

Bell, Catherine. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.

Bird, Frederick B. "The Nature and Function of Ritual Forms: A Sociological Discussion." Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses 9 (1980):387-402.

Bourdillon, M. F. C. and M. Fortes, eds. Sacrifice. New York: Academic, 1980.

Clothey, Fred W. "Toward a Comprehensive Interpretation of Ritual." Journal of Ritual Studies 2 (1988):147-61.

d'Aquili, Eugene G. "Human Ceremonial Ritual and the Modulation of Aggression." Zygon 20 (1985):21-30. d'Aquili, Eugene G. "Myth, Ritual, and the Archetypal Hypothesis." Zygon 21 (1986):141-60.

d'Aquili, Eugene G.; Charles D. Laughlin; and John McManus. The Spectrum of Ritual: A Biogenetic Structural Analysis. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1979.

d'Aquili, Eugene G. and Andrew B. Newberg. "Liminality, Trance, and Unitary States in Ritual and Meditation." Studia Liturgica 23 (1993):2-34.

de Coppet, Daniel. Understanding Rituals. European Association of Social Anthropologists Series. London: Routledge, 1992. Delattre, Roland. "Ritual Resourcefulness and Cultural Pluralism." Soundings 61 (1978):281-301.

Doty, William G. Mythography: The Study of Myths and Rituals. Birmingham, AL: Univ. of Alabama Press, 1986.

Driver, Tom F. The Magic of Ritual: Our Need for Liberating Rites that Transform Our Lives and Our Communities. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991.

Driver, Tom F. "Life in Performance: Reflections on Ritual, Religion, and Social Value." Soundings 77 (1994):63-80.

Fernandez, James W. "The Performance of Ritual Metaphors." In The Social Use of Metaphor: Essays on the Anthropology of Rhetoric, 100-131. J. D. Sapir and J. C. Crocker, eds. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 1977.

Firth, Raymond. "Spiritual Aroma: Religion and Politics." American Anthropologist 83 (1981):582-601.

Fontenrose, Joseph. The Ritual Theory of Myth. University of California Publications Folklore Studies, 18. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1966.

van Gennep, Arnold. The Rites of Passage. M. B. Vizedom and G. L. Caffee, trans. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960.

Girard, René. "Generative Scapegoating." In Violent Origins, 73-105. R. G. Hammerton-Kelly, ed. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1987.

Girard, René. Violence and the Sacred. P. Gregory, trans. and ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1977.

Grimes, Ronald L. Beginnings in Ritual Studies. Rev. ed. Studies in Comparative Religion. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1995.

Grimes, Ronald L. "Liturgical Supinity, Liturgical Erectitude: On the Embodiment of Ritual Authority." Studia Liturgica 23 (1993):51-69.

Grimes, Ronald L. "Of Words the Speaker, Of Deeds the Doer." Journal of Religion 66 (1986):1-17.

Grimes, Ronald L., ed. Readings in Ritual Studies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

Grimes, Ronald L. Research in Ritual Studies: A Programmatic Essay and Bibliography. ATLA Bibliography Series. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1985.

Grimes, Ronald L. Ritual Criticism: Case Studies in Its Practice, Essays on Its Theory. Studies in Comparative Religion. Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1990.

Grimes, Ronald L. "Ritual Studies." In Encyclopedia of Religion 12:422-25. M. Eliade, ed. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

Grimes, Ronald L. "Victor Turner's Definition, Theory, and Sense of Ritual." In Victor Turner and the Construction of Cultural Criticism: Between Literature and Anthropology, 141-46. K. M. Ashley, ed. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1990.

Hammerton-Kelly, Robert G., ed. Violent Origins: Walter Burkert, René Girard, and Jonathan Z. Smith on Ritual Killing and Cultural Formation. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1987.

Honko, Lauri. "Zur Klassifikation der Riten." Temenos 11 (1975):61-77.

Howes, David. "Olfaction and Transition: An Essay on the Ritual Uses of Smell." Canadian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 24 (1987):398-416.

Jennings, Theodore W., Jr. "On Ritual Knowledge." History of Religions 62 (1982):111-27.

Kapferer, Bruce. "Performance and the Structuring of Meaning and Experience." In The Anthropology of Experience, 188-203. V. W. Turner and E. M. Bruner, eds. Urbana and Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1986.

Kelly, J. D. and M. Kaplan. "History, Structure, and Ritual." Annual Review of Anthropology 19 (1990):119-50.

La Fontaine, Jean S. Initiation. New York: Viking, 1985.

Laughlin, Charles D. "Ritual and the Symbolic Function: A Summary of Biogenetic Structural Theory." Journal of Ritual Studies 4 (1990):15-39.

Lawson, Thomas E. "Ritual as Language." Religion 6 (1976):123-39.

Lewis, Gilbert. Day of Shining Red: An Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology, 27. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1980.

Lincoln, Bruce. Emerging from the Chrysalis: Studies in Rituals of Women's Initiation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1981.

MacAloon, John J. Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle: Rehearsals Toward a Theory of Cultural Performance. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1984.

Mack, Burton. "Introduction: Religion and Ritual." In Violent Origins, 1-70. R. G. Hammerton- Kelly, ed. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1987.

Mahdi, Louise Carus, et al., eds. Betwixt & Between: Patterns of Masculine and Feminine Initiation. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press, 1996.

Merkur, Daniel. "The Discharge of Guilt: Psychoanalytic Theories of Ritual." Journal of Ritual Studies 5 (1991):15-32.

Morphy, Howard. "The Interpretation of Ritual: Reflections from Film on Anthropological Practice." Man 29 (1994):117-46.

Munn, Nancy D. "Symbolism in a Ritual Context: Aspects of Symbolic Action." In Handbook of Social and Cultural, 579-612. J. J. Honigmann, ed. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1973.

Neumann, Erich. "The Psychological Meaning of Ritual." Quadrant 9.2 (1976):5-34.

Neusner, Jacob. "Ritual Without Myth: The Use of Legal Materials for the Study of Religions." Religion 5 (1975):91-100.

Olson, Carl. "Eroticism, Violence, and Sacrifice: A Postmodern Theory of Religion and Ritual." Method & Theory in the Study of Religion 6 (1994):231-50.

Penner, Hans H. "Language, Ritual, and Meaning." Numen 32 (1985):1-16.

Peterson, T. V. "Initiation Rite as Riddle." Journal of Ritual Studies 1 (1987):73-84.

Price, S. R. F. Rituals and Power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984.

Puthanangady, Paul. "The Liberative Power of Rituals." Journal of Dharma 9 (1984):208-15.

Rappaport, Roy A. Ecology, Meaning, and Religion. Richmond, CA: North Atlantic, 1979.

Rappaport, Roy A. "Ritual, Sanctity, and Cybernetics." American Anthropologist 73 (1971):59-76.

Rappaport, Roy A. "Ritual, Time, and Eternity." Zygon 27 (1992):5-30.

Rodier, David F. "Ritual: A Whiteheadian Interpretation." In Explanation: New Directions in Philosophy, 60-70. B. Blose, et al., eds. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973.

Rosen, L. N. "Contagion and Cataclysm: A Theoretical Approach to the Study of Ritual Pollution Beliefs." African Studies 32 (1973):229-46.

Shaughnessy, James D., ed. The Roots of Ritual. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1973.

Schechner, Richard. "The Future of Ritual." Journal of Ritual Studies 1 (1987):5-33.

Schechner, Richard. The Future of Ritual: Writings on Culture and Performance. London: Routledge, 1993.

Schechner, Richard and Willa Appel, eds. By Means of Performance: Intercultural Studies of Theatre and Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990.

Smith, P. "Aspects of the Organization of Rites." In Between Belief and Transgression, 103-28. M. Izard and P. Smith, eds. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1982.

Smith, Jonathan Z. "The Domestication of Sacrifice." In Violent Origins, 191-205. R. G. Hammerton-Kelly, ed. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, 1987.

Tambiah, Stanley J. "A Performative Approach to Ritual." Proceedings of the British Academy 65 (1979):113-69.

Turner, Victor W. Drama, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press, 1974.

Turner, Victor W. "Dramatic Ritual/Ritual Drama: Performance and Reflexive Anthropology." Kenyon Review 1.3 (1979):80-93.

Turner, Victor W. The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press, 1967.

Turner, Victor W. The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure. Chicago: Aldine, 1969.

Turner, Victor W. "Sacrifice as Quintessential Process: Prophylaxis or Abandonment?" History of Religions 16 (1977):189-215.

Turner, Victor W. "Social Dramas and Stories About Them." In On Narrative, 137-64. W. J. T. Mitchell, ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1981.

Wheelock, Wade T. "The Problem of Ritual Language: From Information to Situation." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 50 (1982):49-71.

Zeusse, Evan M. "Meditation on Ritual." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 53 (1975):517-30.

Zeusse, Evan M. "Ritual." In Encyclopedia of Religion 12:405-22. M. Eliade, ed. New York: Macmillan, 1987.



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Cross-Cultural Studies on Ritual in Antiquity

Bal, Mieke. "Experiencing Murder: Ritualistic Interpretation of Ancient Texts." In Victor Turner and the Construction of Cultural Criticism: Between Literature and Anthropology, 3-20. K. M. Ashley, ed. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1990.

Malina, Bruce J. "Mediterranean Sacrifice: Dimensions of Domestic and Political Religion." Biblical Theology Bulletin 26 (1996):26-44.

Malina, Bruce J. "Opfer und Exklusivität in der mediterranen Welt." In Opfer theologische und kulturelle Kontexte. W. Stegemann, ed. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, forthcoming.

Meyer, Marvin and Paul Mirecki, eds. Ancient Magic and Ritual Power. Religions in the Graeco- Roman World, 129. Leiden: Brill, 1995.

Mikasa, Takahito, ed. Cult and Ritual in the Ancient Near East. Bulletin of the Middle Eastern Culture Center in Japan, 6. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1992.

Petersen, David L. "Covenant Ritual: A Traditio-historical Perspective." Biblical Research 22 (1977):7-18.

Pop, Mihai. "L'incantation: narration, mythe, rite." In Festschrift für Robert Wildhaber. W. Escher, et al., eds. Basel: Krebs, 1973.

Puhvel, Jaan. "Victimal Hierachies in Indo-European Animal Sacrifices." American Journal of Philology 99 (1978): 354-62.

Quaegebeur, Jan, ed. Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

Robertson, Noel. "The Ritual Background of the Dying God in Cyprus and Syro-Palestine." Harvard Theological Review 75 (1982):313-59.

Rudhardt, J. and O. Reverdin, eds. Le sacrifice dans l'Antiquitè. Entretiens sur l'Antiquitè classique, 27. Geneva: Vandoeuvres, 1981.

Smith, Jonathan Z. "Pearl of Great Price and a Cargo of Yams: A Study in Situational Incongruity." History of Religions 16 (1976):1-19.

Smith, Jonathan Z. To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987.

Wright, George R. H. "Dumuzi at the Court of David." Numen 28 (1981):54-63.



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Egypt

Assmann, Jan. "Semiosis and Interpretation in Ancient Egyptian Ritual." In Interpretation in Religion, ??. S. Biderman and B.-A. Scharfstein, eds. Leiden: Brill, 1992.

Spalinger, A. J. "A Canaanite Ritual Found in Egyptian Military Reliefs." Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 7 (1978):47-60.

Steiner, R. C. and C. F. Nims. "You Can't Offer Your Sacrifice and Eat It Too: A Polemical Poem from the Aramaic Text in Demotic Script." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 43 (1984):89-114.



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Mesopotamia, Syria, and Persia

Abusch, Tzvi. "Ascent to the Stars in a Mesopotamian Ritual: Social Metaphor and Religious Experience." In Death, Ecstasy, and Other Worldy Journeys, 15-39. J. J. Collins and M. Fishbane, eds. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Abusch, Tzvi. "An Early Form of the Witchcraft Ritual Maqlû and the Origin of a Babylonian Magical Ceremony." In Lingering Over Words: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Literature in Honor of William L. Moran, 1-57. T. Abusch, et al., eds. Harvard Semitic Studies, 37. Atlanta: Scholars, 1990.

Abusch, Tzvi. "Mesopotamian Anti-Witch Literature: Texts and Studies. Part I: The Nature of Maqlû: Its Character, Divisions, and Calendrical Setting." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 33 (1974):251-62.

Abusch, Tzvi. "Ritual and Incantation: Interpretation and Textual History of Maqlû VII:58-105 and IX:152-59." In Sha'arei Talmon: Studies in the Bible, Qumran, and the Ancient Near East, Presented to Shemaryahu Talmon, 367-80. M. Fishbane, et al., eds. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1992.

Abusch, Tzvi. "The Ritual Tablet and Rubrics of Maqlû: Towards the History of the Series." In Ah, Assyria . . . Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor, 233-53. Scripta Hierosolymitana, 33. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1991.

Abusch, Tzvi. "The Socio-religious Framework of the Babylonian Witchcraft Ceremony Maqlû: Some Observations on the Introductory Section of the Text, Part II." In Festschrift Greenfield. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, forthcoming.

Berger, P.-R. "Das Neujahrsfest nach den Königsinschriften des ausgehenden babylonischen Reiches." In Actes de la XVIIe Rencontre Assyriologique Bruxelles 30 Juinó4 Juillet 1969, 157-?. A. Finet, ed. Ham-sur-Heure, Belgium, 1970.

Berlejung, Angelika. "Washing the Mouth: The Consecration of Divine Images in Mesopotamia." In The Image and the Book: Iconic Cults, Aniconism, and the Rise of Book Religion in Israel and the Ancient Near East, 45-72. K. van der Toorn, ed. Contributions to Biblical Exegesis, 21. Leuven: Peeters, 1997.

Black, J. A. "The New Year Ceremonies in Ancient Babylon: 'Taking Bel by the Hand' and a Cultic Picnic." Religion 11 (1981):39-59.

Bottéro, Jean. "Les morts e l'au-delà contre l'action des 'revenants'." Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 73 (1983):153-203.

Bowman, Raymond A. Aramaic Ritual Texts from Persepolis. University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publications, 91. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1970.

Briant, Pierre. "Le roi est mort, vive le roi: remarques sur les rites et rituel de succession chez le Achéménides." In La Religion Iranienne a la Epoque Achéménide, 1-11. J. Kellens, ed. Louvain: Gent, 1990.

Buccellati, Giorgio. "The Descent of Inanna as a Ritual Journey to Kutha?" Syro-Mesopotamian Studies 4.3 (1982):3-7.

Çagirgan, Galip and W. G. Lambert. "The Late Babylonian Kislimu Ritual for Esagil." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 43-45 (1991-93):89-106.

Caplice, Richard. The Akkadian Namburbi Texts. Sources from the Ancient Near East 1/1. Malibu, CA: Undena, 1974.

Delaunay, Jacques A. "A propos des Aramaic ritual texts from Persepolis de R A Bowman." In Commémoration Cyrus: Hommage universel, 2: Congrès de Shiraz 1971, 2500e anniversaire de la fondation de l'empire perse. Acta Iranica, 2. Teheran: Bibliothèque Pahlavi; Leiden: Brill, 1974.

van Dijk, J. "Un rituel de purification des armes et de l'armée: essai de traduction de YBC 4184." In Symbolae Biblicae et Mesopotamicae, M. A. Beek, ed. Studia Francisci Scholten Memoriae Dicata, 4. Leiden: Brill, 1973.

Elat, Moshe. "Mesopotamische Kriegsrituale." Bibliotheca Orientalis 39 (1982):5-25. Falkenstein, A. "Akiti-Fest und akiti-Festhaus." In Festschrift Johannes Friedrich zum 65. Geburtstag, 147-82. R. von Kienle, et al., eds. Heidelberg: Winter, 1959.

Farber, Gertrud. "Another Old Babylonian Childbirth Incantation." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 43 (1984):311-16.

Farber, W. "Associative Magic: Some Rituals, Word Plays, and Philology." Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (1986):447-49.

Farber, W. Beschwörungsrituale an Ishtar und Dumuzi. Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, 30. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1977.

Fennely, James M. "The Persepolis Ritual." Biblical Archaeologist 43 (1980):135-62.

Finet, André, ed. Acts de la 17e Recontre Assyriologique Internationale. Ham-Sur-Heure, Belgium: Com Belge de Recherches en Mesopotamie, 1970.

Finet, André. "Le sacrifice de l'âne en Mésopotamie." In Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, 135-42. J. Quaegebeur, ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

Finkel, Irving L. "Necromancy in Ancient Mesopotamia." Archiv für Orientforschung 29-30 (1983-84):1-17.

Fleming, Daniel E. The Installation of Baal's High Priestess at Emar. Harvard Semitic Studies, 42. Atlanta: Scholars, 1992.

Fleming, Daniel E. "The Rituals from Emar: Evolution of an Indigenous Tradition in Second Millenium Syria." In New Horizons in the Study of Ancient Syria, 51-61. M. W. Chavalas and J. L. Hayes, eds. Malibu, CA: Undena, 1992.

Franzmann, Majella. "Living Water: Mediating Element in Mandaean Myth and Ritual." Numen 36 (1989):156-72.

Frayne, Douglas R. "Notes on the Sacred Marriage." Bibliotheca Orientalis 52 (1985):5-22.

Fronzaroli, Pelio. "The Ritual Texts of Ebla." In Literature and Literary Language at Ebla, 163-85. P. Fronzaroli, ed. Quaderi di Semitistica, 18. Florence: Dipartmento de Linguistica, Università di Firenze, 1992.

Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. "The Tribulations of Marduk: The So-called Marduk Ordeal Text." Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1983):131-41.

Grayson, A. Kirk. "Chronicles and the Akitu Festival." In Actes de la XVIIe Recontre Assyriologique Bruxelles, 30 Juinó4 Juillet, 1969, 165??. A. Finet, ed. Ham-surHeure, Belgium: ?, 1970.

Green, Anthony R. "Neo-Assyrian Apotropaic Figures: Figurines, Rituals and Monumental Art." Iraq 45 (1983):87-96.

Heinsohn, Gunnar. "The Rise of Blood Sacrifice and Priest-Kingship in Mesopotamia: A Cosmic Decree?" Religion 22 (1992):109-34.

Hoffner, Harry A. "Symbols for Masculinity and Femininity: Their Use in Ancient Near Eastern Sympathetic Magic Rituals." Journal of Biblical Literature 85 (1966):326-34.

Horowitz, Wayne and Victor Hurowitz. "Urim and Thummim in Light of a Psephomancy Ritual from Assur (LKA 137)." Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 (1992):95-115.

Jacobsen, Thorkild. "Religious Drama in Ancient Mesopotamia." In Unity and Diversity: Essays in the History, Literature and Religion of the Ancient Near East, 65-97. H. Goedicke and J. J. M. Roberts, eds. Johns Hopkins Near Eastern Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1975.

Kingsbury, Edwin C. "A Seven Day Ritual in the Old Babylonian Cult at Larsa." Hebrew Union College Annual 34 (1963):1-34.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sacred Marriage Rite. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1969.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. "The Temple in Sumerian Literature." In Temple in Society, 1-16. M. V. Fox, ed. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1988.

Kuhrt, Amélie. "Usurpation, Conquest and Ceremonial: From Babylon to Persia." In Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies, 20-55.

Cannadine and S. Price, eds. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987.

Kuhrt, Amélie and S. Sherwin-White. "Xerxes' Destruction of Babylonian Temples." In Achaemenid History II: The Greek Sources. H. W. A. M. Sancisi-Weerdenburg and A. Kuhrt, eds. Leiden: Brill, ?

Lambert, Wilfred G. "The Conflict in the Akitu House." Iraq 25 (1963):189-90.

Lambert, Wilfred G. "Myth and Ritual as Conceived by the Babylonians." Journal of Semitic Studies 13 (1968):104-12.

Leichty, Erle. "Ritual, 'Sacrifice', and Divination in Mesopotamia." In Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, 237-42. J. Quaegebeur, ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

Levine, Baruch A. and William W. Hallo. "Offerings to the Temple Gates at Ur." Hebrew Union College Annual 38 (1967):17-58.

Levine, Louis D., et al. "The Persepolis Ritual." Biblical Archaeologist 44 (1981):72-74.

Meyer, Werner R. "Das Ritual BMS 12 mit dem Gebet 'Marduk 5'." Orientalia 62 (1993):313-37.

Meyer, Werner R. "Ein Ritual gegen Feindschaft im Museo Nazionale d'Arte Orientale zum Rom." Orientalia 59 (1990):14-33.

Michalowski, Piotr. "The Drinking Gods: Alcohol in Mesopotamian Ritual and Mythology." In Drinking in Ancient Societies: History and Culture of Drinks in the Ancient Near East, 27-44. L. Milano, ed. History of the Ancient Near East Studies, 6. Padua, Italy: Sargon, 1994.

Naveh, Joseph and Shaul Shaked. "Ritual Texts or Treasury Documents?" Orientalia 42 (1973):445-57.

Nylander, C. "'Al-Biruni and Persepolis." In Acta Iranica I, 137-50. Leiden: Brill, 1974.

Reisman, Daniel. "Iddin-Dagan's Sacred Marriage Hymn." Journal of Cuneiform Studies 25 (1973):185-202.

Renger, J. "Heilige Hochzeit." In Reallexikon der Assyriologie 4:251-59. Berlin, 1975.

Röllig, Wolfgang. "Der Mondgott und die Kuh: Ein Lehrstück zur Problematik der Texte- überlieferung im Alten Orient." Orientalia 54 (1985):260-73.

Root, M. C. "The Parthenon Frieze and the Apadana Reliefs at Persepolis: Reassessing a Programatic Relationship." American Journal of Archaeology 89 (1985):??.

Scurlock, J. A. "Magical Uses of Ancient Mesopotamian Festivals of the Dead." In Ancient Magic and Ritual Power, 93-107. M. Meyer and P. Mirecki, eds. Religions in the Graeco-Roman World, 129. Leiden: Brill, 1995.

Sherwin-White, Susan M. "Ritual for a Seleucid King at Babylon?" Journal of Hellenic Studies 103 (1983):156-59.

Sigrist, Marcel. "Gestes symboliques et rituels à Emar." In Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, 381-410. J. Quaegebeur, ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

Sigrist, Marcel. "On the Bite of a Dog." In Love & Death in the Ancient Near East, 85-88. J. H. Marks and R. M. Good, eds. Guilford, CN: Four Quarters, 1987.

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Tanret, Michel and Karel Van Lergerghe. "Rituals and Profits in the Ur-Utu Archive." In Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, 435-49. J. Quaegebeur, ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

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van der Toorn, Karel. "The Babylonian New Year Festival: New Insights From the Cuneiform Texts and Their Bearing on Old Testament Study." In Congress Volume, Leuven 1989, 331-44. Vetus Testamentum Supplements, 43. J. A. Emerton, ed. Leiden: Brill, 1991.

Viganò Lorenzo. "Rituals at Ebla." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 54 (1995):215-22.

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Anatolia

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Merkelbach, Reinhold. "The Girl in the Rosebush: A Turkish Tale and Its Roots in Ancient Ritual." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 82 (1978):1-15.

Neu, Erich. Ein althethitisches Gewitterritual. Studien zu den Bogazköy, 3. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1967.

Neu, Erich. Althethitisches Ritual-texte in Umschrift. Studien zu den Bogazköy, 25. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1980.

Otten, Heinrich. Hethitische Totenrituale. Berlin: Mann, 1958.

Otten, Heinrich. Ein hethitische Festritual (KBo XIX 128). Studien zu den Bogazköy Texte, 13. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1971.

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Ugarit, Cyprus, and Phoenecia

Bordreuil, Pierre and Dennis Pardee. "Le rituel funéraire ougaritique RS 34.126." Syria 59 (1982):121-28.

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del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. "Dos rituales regios hurritas de Ugarit (KTU 1.132/1.111)." Aula Orientalis 8 (1990):21-31.

del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. "Posible ritual ugaritico de 'consulta' cútica (KTU 1.104)." Aula Orientalis 6 (1988):99-101.

del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. "Ritual proccesional de Ugarit (KTU 1.43)." Sefarad 46 (1986):363-71.

del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. "Rituales sacrificiales de plenilunio y novilunio (KTU 1.109/1.146)." Aula Orientalis 7 (1989):181-88.

del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. "Royal Aspects of the Ugaritic Cult." In Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, 51-66. J. Quaegebeur, ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. "Typologie et syntaxe des rituels ugaritiques." In Essais sur le rituel, vol. 1, 41-61. A.-M. Blondeau and K. Schipper, eds. Leuven/Paris: Peeters, 1988.

del Olmo Lete, Gregorio. "Un ritual funerario de Ugarit (KTU 1.105)." Aula Orientalis 6 (1988):189-194.

Dietrich, Manfred and Oswald Loretz. "Ugaritische Rituale und Beschwörungen." Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristen Literatur 2 (1988):300-357.

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Fisher, Loren R. and F. Brent Knutson. "An Enthronement Ritual at Ugarit." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 28 (1969):157-67.

Fleming, Danel E. "The Voice of the Incantation Priest (RIH 78/20)." Ugarit Forschungen 23 (1992):141-54.

Healey, John F. "Ritual Text KTU 1 161 Translation and Notes." Ugarit Forschungen 10 (1979):83-89.

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de Langhe, R. "Myth, Ritual, and Kingship in the Ras Shamra Tablets." In Myth, Ritual, and Kingship: Essays on the Theory and Practice of Kingship in the Ancient Near East and in Israel, 122-48. S. H. Hooke, ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1958.

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Levine, Baruch A. and Jean Michel de Tarragon. "Dead Kings and Rephaim: The Patrons of the Ugaritic Dynasty." Journal of the American Oriental Society 104 (1984):649-59.

Levine, Baruch A. and Jean Michel de Tarragon. "The King Proclaims the Day: Ugaritic Rites for the Vintage (KTU 1.41//1.87)." Revue Biblique 100 (1993):76-115.

Levine, Baruch A. and Jean Michel de Tarragon. "'Shapshu Cries Out in Heaven': Dealing With Snake-Bites at Ugarit (KTU 1.100, 1.107)." Revue Biblique 95 (1988):481-518.

Lipinski, Edward. "Rites et sacrifices dans la tradition phènico-punique." In Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, 257-81. J. Quaegebeur, ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

Loulloupis, M. "Mycenaean 'Horns of Consecration' in Cyprus." In Acts, Int'l Archaeological Symposium: The Mycenaeans in the Eastern Mediterranean, 225-44. V. Karageorghis, et al., eds. Nicosia, Cyprus: Department of Antiquities, 1973.

McLaughlin, John L. "The marzeah at Ugarit: A Textual and Contextual Study." Ugarit Forschungen 23 (1992):265-81.

Miller, Patrick D. "The Mrzh Text." In The Claremont Ras Shamra Tablets, 37-48. L. R. Fisher, ed. Analecta Orientalia, 48. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1971.

de Moor, Johannes C. "An Ugaritic Expiation Ritual and Its Old Testament Parallels." Ugarit Forschungen 23 (1992):283-300.

de Moor, Johannes C. New Year With Canaanites and Israelites. 2 vols. Kampen Cahiers, 21 & 22. Kampen: Kok, 1972.

Pardee, Dennis. "RS 1.005 and the Identification of the gtrm." In Ritual and Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East, 301-18. J. Quaegebeur, ed. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 55. Leuven: Peeters, 1993.

Peltenburg, Edgar J. "A Cypriot Model for Prehistoric Ritual." Antiquity 62 (1988):289-93.

Robertson, Noel. "The Ritual Background of the Dying God in Cyprus and Syro-Palestine." Harvard Theological Review 75 (1982):313-59.

Sanmartìn, José. "El ordo litèrgico KTU 4.14." Aula Orientalis 8 (1990):89-99.

Simonetti, Adele. "Sacrifici umani e uccisioni rituali nel mondo fenicio-punico: il contributo delle fonti letterarie classiche." Revista di Studi Fenici 11 (1983):91-111.

Spalinger, A. J. "A Canaanite Ritual Found in Egyptian Military Reliefs." Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities 7 (1978):47-60.

Tsumura, David Toshio. "A Problem of Myth and Ritual Relationship CTA 23 (UT 52):56- 57." Ugarit Forschungen 10 (1979):387-95.

Xella, Paolo. "L'influence babylonienne à Ougarit, d'après les textes alphabétiques rituels et divinatoires." In Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarn. Politische und kulturelle Wechselbeziehungen im Alten vorderasien vom 4. Bis 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr., 321-38. H. Kühne, et al., eds. Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient, 1. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1982.

Xella, Paolo. I testi rituali di Ugarit. Rome, 1981.


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Israel-Hebrew Bible

Aartun, Kjell. "Studien zum Gesetz über den grossen Versöhnungstag Lv 16 mit Varianten: Ein ritualgeschichtlicher Beitrag." Studia Theologica 34 (1980):73-109.

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Archer, Léonie J. "The Role of Jewish Women in the Religion, Ritual and Cult of Graeco-Roman Palestine." In Images of Women in Antiquity, 273-87. A. Cameron and A. Kuhrt, eds. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1983.

Bach, Daniel. "Rite et parole dans l'Ancien Testament: nouveaux éléments apportés par l'étude de tôdâh." Vetus Testamentum 28 (1978):10-19.

Bergant, Dianne. "An Anthropological Approach to Biblical Interpretation: The Passover Supper in Exodus 12:1-20 as a Case Study." Semeia 67 (1995):43-62.

Brichto, Herbert Chanan. "On Slaughter, Sacrifice, Blood and Atonement." Hebrew Union College Annual 47 (1976):19-55.

Brown, John Pairman. "The Sacrificial Cult and Its Critique in Greek and Hebrew." Journal of Semitic Studies 24 (1979):159-77.

Carmichael, Calum M. "A Ceremonial Crux: Removing a Man's Sandal as a Female Gesture of Contempt." Journal of Biblical Literature 96 (1977):321-36.

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Clines, David J. A. "New Year." In Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Supplementary Volume, 625-29. K. R. Crim, ed. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976.

Cohn, Robert L. The Shape of Sacred Space: Four Biblical Studies. AAR Studies in Religion, 23. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1981.

Collins, John J. "The Meaning of Sacrifice: A Contrast of Methods." Biblical Research 22 (1977):19-34.

Daly, Robert J. "The Power of Sacrifice in Ancient Judaism and Christianity." Journal of Ritual Studies 4 (1990):181-98.

Davies, Douglas. "Interpretation of Sacrifice in Leviticus." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 89 (1977):387-99.

Durand, Xavier. "Du ritual sacrificiel au sacrifice biblique." In L'Ancien Testament: approches et lectures des procédures de travail a la theologie, 31-61. A. Vanel, ed. Le Point Theologique, 24. Paris: Editions Beauchesne, 1977.

Eilberg-Schwartz, Howard. The Savage in Judaism: An Anthropology of Israelite Religion and Ancient Judaism. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1990.

Flanagan, James W. "Social Transformation and Ritual in 2 Samuel 6." In The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman, 362-72. C. Meyers and M. P. O'Connor, eds. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983.

Fowler, Mervyn D. "Excavated Incense Burners: A Case for Identifying a Site as Sacred." Palestine Exploration Quarterly 117 (1985):25-29.

Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. "Pollution, Purification, and Purgation in Biblical Israel." In The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman, 399-414. C. L. Meyers and M. O'Connor, eds. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983.

Frymer-Kensky, Tikva. "The Strange Case of the Suspected Sotah (Numbers 5:11-31)." Vetus Testamentum 34 (1984):11-26.

Gerstenberger, Erhard S. Der bittende Mensch: Bittritual und Klagelied des Einzelnen im Alten Israel. Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testaments, 51. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1980.

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Görg, M. "Beobachtungen zum sogenannten Azazel-Ritus." Biblische Notizen 33 (1986):10-16.

Gorman, Frank H., Jr. The Ideology of Ritual: Space, Time and Status in the Priestly Theology. JSOT Supplement Series, 91. Sheffield: JSOT, 1990.

Gorman, Frank H., Jr. "Priestly Rituals of Founding: Time, Space, and Status." In History and Interpretation: Essays in Honor of John H. Hayes, 47-64. M. P. Graham, et al., eds. JSOT Supplement Series, 173. Sheffield: JSOT, 1993.

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Halpern, Baruch. "The Ritual Background of Zechariah's Temple Song." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 40 (1978):167-90.

Hanson, Paul D. "Zechariah 9 and the Recapitulation of an Ancient Ritual Pattern." Journal of Biblical Literature 92 (1973):37-59.

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Haran, Menachem. "Temple and Community in Ancient Israel." In Temple in Society, 17-25. M. V. Fox, ed. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1988.

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Hildebrand, David R. "Temple Ritual: A Paradigm for Moral Holiness in Haggai 2:10-19." Vetus Testamentum 39 (1989):154-68.

Hillers, Delbert R. "Ritual Procession of the Ark and Ps 132." Catholic Biblical Quarterly 30 (1968):48-55.

Horowitz, Wayne and Victor Hurowitz. "Urim and Thummim in Light of a Psephomancy Ritual from Assur (LKA 137)." Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 (1992):95-115.

Huffmon, Herbert B. "Priestly Divination in Israel." In The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman, 355-59. C. L. Meyers and M. O'Connor, eds. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983.

Hurovitz, Victor. "Isaiah's Impure Lips and Their Purification in Light of Akkadian Sources." Hebrew Union College Annual 60 (1989):39-89.

Klingbeil, Gerald A. A Comparative Study of the Ritual of Ordination as Found in Leviticus 8 and Emar 369. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998.

Klingbeil, Gerald A. "Ritual Space in the Ordination Ritual of Leviticus 8." Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 21 (1995):59-82.

Klingbeil, Gerald A. "Ritual Time in Leviticus 8 with Special Reference to the Seven Day Period in the Old Testament." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 109 (1997):500-513.

Klingbeil, Gerald A. "The Syntactic Structure of the Ritual of Ordination (Lev 8)." Biblica 77 (1996):509-19.

Klingbeil, Gerald A. "La unción de Aarón. Un estudio de Lev 8:12 en su contexto veterotestamentario y antiguo cercano-oriental." Theologika 11.1 (1996):64-83.

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Lemche, Niels Peter. "The Manumission of Slaves ó the Fallow Year ó the Sabbatical Year ó the Jobel Year." Vetus Testamentum 26 (1976):38-59.

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McNutt, Paula M. "The Kenites, the Midianites, and the Rechabites as Marginal Mediators in Ancient Israelite Tradition." Semeia 67 (1995):109-32.

Marx, Alfred. "Sacrifice de reparation et rites de levée de sanction." Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 100 (1988):183-98.

Marx, Alfred. "Sacrifice pour les péchs ou rite de passage? Quelques réflexions sur la fonction du hatta't." Revue Biblique 96 (1989):27-48.

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Milgrom, Jacob. "Ethics and Ritual: The Foundations of the Biblical Dietary Laws." In Religion and Law: Biblical, Jewish, and Islamic Perspectives, 159-91. E. B. Firmage, ed. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1989.

Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 1-16. Anchor Bible, 3. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

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Moorey, P. Roger S. and Stuart Fleming. "Problems in the Study of the Anthropomorphic Metal Statuary from Syro-Palestine Before 330 BC." Levant 16 (1984):67-90. Antiquity, 5. Leiden: Brill, 1974.

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Plum, Karin Friis. "Kvindereligiösitet i Det gamle Testamente." Dansk Teologisk Tidsskrift 47 (1984):20-42.

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