Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

Ritualbibliographie - Allgemeiner Teil

Axel Michaels

Die Ritualforschung - Versuch eines Literaturüberblicks


Allgemeiner Teil


1. Sammelbände, Nachschlagewerke, Einführungen

1.1 Anthologien, Reader

Belliger, Andréa and David Krieger (Hg.). Ritualtheorien. Ein einführendes Handbuch. 4. Aufl. Opladen, Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1998.

Lessa, W. A. and Evon Z. Vogt (ed.). Reader in Comparative Religion. 4th ed. New York: Harper Collins, 1979.

Segal, Robert Alan. The Myth and Ritual Theory: An Anthology. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.

Stein, Diane (ed.). The Goddess Celebrates: An Anthology of Women's Rituals. Freedom, Calif.: Crossing Press, 1991.


1.2 Sammelbände

Ahlbäck, Tore. The Problem of Ritual: Based on Papers Read At the Symposium on Religious Rites Held At Abo, Finland, on the 13th-16th of August 1991. Abo, Finland: Donner Institute for Research in Religious and Cultural History; Stockholm, 1993.

Beane, Wendell C. and William G. Doty (eds.). Myths, rites, symbols: a Mircea Eliade reader. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.

Blondeau, Anne-Marie and Kristofer Marinus Schipper (eds.). Essais sur le rituel. Bibliotheque de l'École des Hautes Études. Section des Sciences Religieuses. Louvain: Peeters, 1988-1995.

Caduff, Corinna und Pfaff-Czarnecka (Hg.). Rituale heute. Berlin: Dietrich Reimers, 1998.

Coppet, Daniel de. Understanding Rituals. London u.a.: Routledge, 1992.

Kloppenborg, Ria and Dirk Jan Hoens. Selected Studies on Ritual in the Indian Religions: Essays to D.J. Hoens. Studies in the History of Religions. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1983.

LaFontaine, J. S. and Audrey Isabel Richards (eds.). The Interpretation of Ritual: Essays in Honour of A. I. Richards, Edited by J. S. La Fontaine. London: Travistock Publications, 1972.

Schäfer, Alfred und Michael Wimmer (Hg.). Rituale und Ritualisierungen. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 1998.

Shaughnessy, James D. (ed.). The Roots of Ritual. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1973.

Social Analysis. Special Issue: The Power of Ritual, 1979.

Strickmann, Michael (ed.). Classical Asian Rituals and the Theory of Ritual. Berlin: 1986.

Thinès, Georges and Luc de Heusch. Rites et ritualisation: Colloques et Séminaires de la Fondation Jean-Marie Delwart, Louvain-la-Neuve, 13-14 Septembre 1993. Science, Histoire, Philosophie. Paris: J. Vrin; Lyon: Institut interdisciplinaire d'Études Epistemologiqes, 1995.

Wilkins, John B. (ed.). Approaches to the Study of Ritual. Italy and the Ancient Mediterranean. Being a Series of Seminars Given At the Institute of Classical Studies, School of Advanced Study, University of London. London: Accordia Research Centre, 1996.


1.3 Geschichte der Ritualforschung

Assmann, Jan. Das kulturelle Gedächtnis. Schrift, Erinnerung und politische Identität in frühen Hochkulturen. München: C. H. Beck, 1992.

Belier, Wouter W. "Arnold Van Gennep and the Rise of French Sociology of Religion." Numen 41 (1994): 141-62.

Bräunlein, Peter J. "Victor Witter Turner (1920-1983)." In: Axel Michaels (Hg.). Klassiker der Religionswisschenschaft. München: C. H. Beck, 1997: 324-344.

Schomburg-Scherff, Sylvia M. "Arnold Van Gennep (1873-1957)." In: Axel Michaels (Hg.). Klassiker der Religionswissenschaft. München: C. H. Beck, 1997: 222-233.

Segal, Robert Alan. "The Myth-Ritualist Theory of Religion." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 19, no. 2 (1980): 173-85.

________. Ritual and Myth: Robertson Smith, Frazer, Hooke, and Harrison. Theories of Myth. New York: Garland Pub., 1996.


2. Theorie der Rituale


2.1 Allgemeine Werke zur Theorie des Rituals, Überblicke, Definitionen

Aune, Michael B. (ed.). Religious and Social Ritual: Interdisciplinary Explorations. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press, 1996.

Bascom, William. "The Myth-Ritual Theory." Journal of American Folklore 70 (1957): 103-14.

Bell, Catherine. "The Authority of Ritual Experts." Studia Liturgica 23, no. 1 (1993): 98-120.

________. Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

________. "Ritual, Change and Changing Rituals." Worship 63, no. 1 (1989): 31-41.

________. Ritual. Perspective and Dimensions. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Bloch, Maurice. Ritual, History and Power: Selected Papers in Anthropology. London: Athlone Press, 1989.

Brandon, S. G. F. "The Myth and Ritual Position Critically Considered." In: S. H. Hooke (ed.). Myth, Ritual and Kingship. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958: 261-191.

Devisch, René. Le Rite, source et ressources. Bruxelles: Facultés Univ. Saint-Louis, 1995.

Doty, William G. Mythography: The Study of Myths and Rituals. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1986.

Douglas, Mary. "The Contempt of Ritual." New Blackfriars 49 (1968): 475-82 (I) and 528-35 (II).

Fontenrose, Joseph. The Ritual Theory of Myth. Berkeley u.a.: University of California Press, 1971.

Gomez-Moriana, Antonio. La subversion du discours rituel. Longueuil, Québec: Le Préambule, 1985.

Goody, Jack. "Religion and Ritual: The Definitional Problem." British Journal of Sociology 12 (1961): 142-64.

Grimes, Ronald L. Readings in Ritual Studies. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1996.

________. Research in Ritual Studies: A Programmatic Essay and Bibliography. ATLA Bibliography Series. Metuchen, N. J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985.

________. Ritual Criticism: Case Studies in Its Practice, Essays on Its Theory. Studies in Comparative Religion. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1990.

Hartland, Edwin Sidney. Ritual and Belief: Studies in the History of Religion. London: Williams and Norgate, 1914.

Hicks, David. Ritual and Belief: Readings in the Anthropology of Religion. Boston: McGraw-Hill College, 1999.

Humphrey, Caroline and James Laidlaw. The Archetypal Actions of Ritual. A Theory of Ritual Illustrated by the Jain Rite of Worship. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Kelly, John D. and Martha Kaplan: "History, Structure, and Ritual". Annual Review of Anthropology 19 (1990), S.119-150.

Kluckhohn, Clyde. "Myths and Rituals: A General Theory." Harvard Theological Review 35 (1942): 42-79.

Kondylis, Panajotis. Das Politische und der Mensch. Grundzüge der Sozialontologie. Berlin: Akademie, 1999.

Krämer, Ulrike. Die Ordnung der Rituale. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1992.

Lang, Andrew. Myth, Ritual and Religion. New ed. The Silver Library. London, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1899.

Lewis, Gilbert. Day of Shining Red: An Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology, no. 27. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Pottebaum, Gerard A.: The Rites of People. Washington: The Liturgical Conference, 1975.

Rappaport, Roy A. Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Smith, Jonathan Z. To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Snoek, Joannes Augustinus Maria. Initiations: A Methodological Approach to the Application of Classification and Definition Theory in the Study of Rituals. Pijnacker: Dutch Efficiency Bureau, 1987.

Staal, Frits. The Science of Ritual. Professor P.D. Gune Memorial Lectures. First Series Post-Graduate and Research Department Series, no. 15. Poona, India: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1982.

2.2 Funktionalistische Theorien

2.2.1 Soziologische Theorien

Alexander, Bobby Chris. Victor Turner Revisited: Ritual As Social Change. American Academy of Religion Academy Series. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press, 1991.

Beattie, J. H. "Ritual and Social Change." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute NS 1 (1966).

Bocock, Robert. Ritual in Industrial Society: A Sociological Analysis of Ritualism in Modern England. London: Allen and Unwin, 1974.

Bourdieu, Pierre: Zur Soziologie der symbolischen Formen. 4. Aufl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp 1991.

Cazeneuve, Jean. Sociologie du rite. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1971.

Deegan, Mary Jo. American Ritual Dramas: Social Rules and Cultural Meanings. Contributions in Sociology, no. 76. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Douglas, Mary. Ritual, Tabu, Körpersymbolik. Sozialanthropologische Studien in Industriegesellschaft und Stammeskultur. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp, 1974.

Duchhardt, Heinz und Gert Melville (Hg.). Im Spannungsfeld von Recht und Ritual: soziale Kommunikation in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit. Norm und Struktur. Köln, Weimar, Wien: Böhlau, 1997.

Durkheim, Emile. Formes élementaires de la vie religieuse. Paris: Alcan, 1912 (dt. Die elementaren Formen des religiösen Lebens. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp 1994).

Gluckman, Max. Essays on the Ritual of Social Relations. Manchester: Manchester Unviersity Press, 1962.

Hubert, Henri and Marcel Mauss. Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function. Translated by W. D. Halls. London: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Lincoln, Bruce. Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Meyer, John W. and W. Richard. Scott. Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality. Updated ed. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1992.

Nagendra, S. P. The Concept of Ritual in Modern Sociological Theory. New Delhi: Academic Journals of India, 1971.


2.2.2 Psychologische Theorien

Bettelheim, Bruno. Symbolic Wounds: Puberty Rites and the Envious Male. Rev. ed. New York: Collier Books, 1971 (dt. Symbolische Wunden. Pubertätsriten und der Neid des Mannes. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verl., 1990).

Boyer, Pascal. Cognitive Aspects of Religious Symbolism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Carlton-Ford, Steven Lewis. The Effects of Ritual and Charisma: The Creation of Collective Effervescence and the Support of Psychic Strength. Cults and Nonconventional Religious Groups. New York: Garland Pub., 1993.

Driver, Tom F. Liberating Rites. Understanding the Transformative Power of Ritual. Boulder, Oxford: Westview Press, 1998.

Freud, Sigmund: "Totem und Tabu. Einige Übereinstimmungen im Seelenleben der Wilden und der Neurotiker [1912/ 13]". In: ders., Werkausgabe in zwei Bänden. Bd. 2: Anwendungen der Psychoanalyse, hg. u. mit Kommentaren versehen von Anna Freud und Ilse Grubrich-Simitis, Frankfurt/M.: Fischer, 1978: S.201-328.

Freud, Sigmund. "Zwangshandlungen und Religionsausübungen." In: ders. Gesammelte Werke Bd. 7 (Studienausgabe, Bd. 7, 14).1907: 130 f.

Gay, Volney Patrick. Freud on Ritual: Reconstruction and Critique. Dissertation Series - American Academy of Religion. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1979.

Heimbrock, Hans-Günter and H. Barbara Boudewijnse (eds.). Current Studies on Rituals: Perspectives for the Psychology of Religion. International Series in the Psychology of Religion, no. 2. Amsterdam u.a.: Rodopi, 1990.

Helbig, Madeleine. Kulturanthropologie und Psychologie sexueller Rituale - Naven (Papua-Neuguinea) und Tantra (Altes Indien, Nepal, Tibet). Berlin: Freie Univ., 1991 [Diss.].

Homans, G.C. "Anxiety and Ritual." American Anthropologist 43 (1941): 146-72 (dt. in Logik des Herzens, hg. von Gerhard Kahle, 108-19. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp, 1981).

Klosinski, Gunther (Hg.). Pubertätsriten: Äquivalente und Defizite in unserer Gesellschaft. Bern: Huber, 1991.

Laubscher, Matthias. "Angst und ihre Überwindung in Initiationsriten." In: Heinrich von Stietencron (Hg.). Angst und Gewalt. Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1979, 78-100.

Malinowski, Bronislaw. Magic, Science and Religion. reprint, London: 1974 (dt. Magie, Wissenschaft und Religion und andere Schriften. Frankfurt: Fischer, 1983).

Meddin, Jay. "Symbols, Anxiety and Ritual: A Functional Interpretation." Quantitative Sociology 3, no. 4 (1980): 251-71.

Pollack, Rachel. The Power of Ritual. The Omega Institute Mind, Body, Spirit Series. New York: Dell Pub., 2000.

Reik, Theodor. Das Ritual: Psychoanalytische Studien. 2. Aufl. Leipzig: Psychoanalytischer Verein, 1919.

Scheff, Thomas J. Catharsis in Healing, Ritual, and Drama. Berkeley u.a.: University of California Press, 1979.

Shorter, Bani. Susceptible to the Sacred: The Psychological Experience of Ritual. London u.a.: Routledge, 1996.


2.3 Bedeutungstheorien

Goody, Jack. "Against 'Ritual': Loosely Structured Thoughts on a Loosely Defined Topic." In: Sally Falk  Moore and Barbara G. Myerhoff (eds.),  Secular Ritual, Assen u.a.: van Gorcum, 1977: 25-35.

Humphrey, Caroline and James Laidlaw. The Archetypal Actions of Ritual. A Theory of Ritual Illustrated by the Jain Rite of Worship. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Mack, Burton. "Staal's Gauntlet and the Queen." Religion 21 (1991): 213-8.

Michaels, Axel. "Le rituel pour le rituel? Oder wie sinnlos sind Rituale?" In Rituale heute, eds. Corinna Caduff and Joanna Pfaff-Czarnecka, 23-47. Berlin: Dietrich Reimers, 1998.

Mitchell, Leonel L. The Meaning of Ritual. Reprint. Wilton, Conn.: Morehouse-Barlow, 1988.

Penner, Hans H. "Language, Ritual, and Meaning." Numen 32, (1985): 1-16.

Scharfe, Hartmut. "The Great Rituals -- Were They Really Meaningless?" In Sanskrit and Related Studies, eds. B. K. Matilal and P. Billimoria, 89-98. Poona: Shri Garbidas Oriental Series, 1990.

Staal, Frits. "From Meaning to Trees." Journal of Ritual Studies 7 (1993): 11-32.

________. "The Meaninglessness of Ritual." Numen 26 (1979): 2-22.

________. "Professor Schechner's Passion for Goats." Journal of Asian Studies 46, no. 1 (1987): 105-8.

________. Rules Without Meaning. Ritual, Mantras and the Human Sciences. New York: Peter Lang, 1990.

________. "Within Ritual, About Ritual and Beyond." Religion 21 (1991): 227-34.

Strenski, Ivan. Review of Rules Without a Meaning, by Frits Staal. Religion 21 (1991): 219-25.

Thompson, George. "On Mantras and Frits Staal." Journal of Ritual Studies 9, no. 2 (1997): 23-44.


2.4 Handlungstheorien

2.4.1 Performanztheorien

Andersen, Jürgen. Ritual & Performance. Kulturstudier. Aarhus: Aarhus universitetsforlag, 1993.

Barba, Eugenio. The Paper Canoe: A Guide to Theatre Anthropology. New York: Routledge, 1995.

Barba, Eugenio and Nicola Savarese. A Dictionary of Theatre Anthropology: The Secret Art of the Performer. New York: Routledge 1991.

Blanchard, Kendall. "The Ritual Dimension of Play: Structure and Perspective - Introduction." In: Helen B. Schwartzmann (ed.). Play and Culture. West Point, N. Y.: Leisure Press, 1980: 49-50.

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. Performers, Play, and Agency: Yoruba Ritual Process. New York: New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science, 1989.

Emigh, John. Masked Performance: The Play of Self and Other in Ritual and Theatre. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Gill, Sam D. Native American Religious Action: a Performance Approach to Religion. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1987.

Handelman, Don. "Play and Ritual: Complementary Frames of Meta-Communication." In: Anthony J. Chapman and Hugh C. Foot (eds.). It's a Funny Thing Humour. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977: 185-192.

Hanna, Judith Lynne. The Performer-Audience Connection: Emotion to Metaphor in Dance and Society. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983.

Hughes-Freeland, Felicia. Ritual, Performance, Media. ASA Monographs, no. 35. London, New York: Routledge, 1998.

Kershaw, Baz. The Politics of Performance: Radical Theatre as Cultural Intervention. London: Routledge, 1992.

Napier, A. David. Foreign Bodies: Performance, Art, and Symbolic Anthropology. Berkeley u.a.: University of California Press, 1996.

Schechner, Richard. End of Humanism: Writings on Performance. New York: Performing Arts Journal Publ., 1982.

________. The Future of Ritual: Writings on Culture and Performance. London, New York: Routledge, 1993.

________. Performance Theory. Rev. and expanded ed. New York: Routledge, 1988.

________. Theater-Anthropologie: Spiel und Ritual im Kulturvergleich. Rowohlts Enzyklopädie. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1990.

Schechner, Richard and Willa Appel. By Means of Performance: Intercultural Studies of Theatre and Ritual. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Schechner, Richard and Mady Schuman. Ritual, Play, and Performance: Readings in the Social Sciences. A Continuum Book. New York: Seabury Press, 1976.

Spencer, Paul (ed.). Society and the Dance: the Social Anthropology of Process and Performance. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Tambiah, Stanley J. A Performative Approach to Ritual. London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1981.

Turner, Victor. Dramas, Fields and Metaphors. Symbolic Action in Human Society. Ithaca, N.Y., London: Cornell University Press, 1974.

________. The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of the Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1967.

________. From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play. Performance Studies Series. New York City: Performing Arts Journal Publications, 1982 (dt. Vom Ritual zum Theater: der Ernst des menschlichen Spiels. Frankfurt, M.: Edition Qumran im Campus Verlag, 1989).

________. Revelation and Divination in Ndembu Ritual. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975.

Willems, Herbert und Martin Jurga (Hg.). Inszenierungsgesellschaft. Ein einführendes Handbuch, Opladen, Wiesbaden 1998.


2.4.2 Prozessualität und Transformation

Gennep, Arnold van. Les rites de passage. Paris: Édition A. et J. Picard, 1981 (dt.. Übergangsriten. Frankfurt/M.: Campus Verlag, 1986).

Kapferer, Bruce. "The Ritual Process and the Problem of Reflexivity in Sinhalese Demon Exorcisms." In: John J. MacAloon (ed.). Rite, Drama, Festival, Spectacle. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1984: 179-207.

________. "Ritual Process and the Transformation of Context." Social Analysis, Special Issue: the Power of Ritual (1979).

Turner, Victor. The Ritual Process. Structure and Anti-Structure. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969 (dt. Das Ritual: Struktur und Anti-Struktur. Theorie und Gesellschaft. Frankfurt/M.: Campus-Verlag, 1989).


2.4.3 Interaktionstheorien

Gluckman, Max. Essays on the Ritual of Social Relations. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1962.

________. Rituals of Rebellion in Southeast Africa. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1954.

Grimes, Ronald L. Beginnings in Ritual Studies. Rev. ed. Studies in Comparative Religion. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.

Habermas, Jürgen. Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns, 2 Bde. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1981.


2.5 Theorien zu Text und Ritual

2.5.1 Texttheorien

Austin, John Langshaw: Zur Theorie der Sprechakte (How to do things with words.) Deutsche Bearbeitung von Eike von Savigny. 2. Aufl. Stuttgart: Reclam 1998.

Bell, Catherine. "Ritualization of Texts and the Textualization of Ritual in the Codification of Taoist Liturgy." History of Religions 27, no. 4 (1988): 366-92.

Bauman, Richard. Verbal Art As Performance. Reissued. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press, 1984.

Braungart, Wolfgang. Ritual und Literatur. Konzepte der Sprach- und Literaturwissenschaft, no. 53. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1996.

Bruner, Edward M. (ed.). Text, Play, and Story: the Construction and Reconstruction of Self and Society. Washington, D.C.: American Ethnological Society, 1984.

Das, Veena. "Language of Sacrifice." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute NS 18 (1983).

Davies, Douglas James. Death, Ritual, and Belief: The Rhetoric of Funerary Rites. London, Washington, D.C.: Cassell, 1997.

Elsbree, Langdon. The Rituals of Life: Patterns in Narratives. Series in Modern Literary Criticism. National University Publications. Port Washington, London: Kennikat, 1982.

Elsbree, Langdon. Ritual Passages and Narrative Structures. American University Studies. Series III, Comparative Literature. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.

Grainger, Roger. The Language of the Rite. London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1974.

Hooke, S. H. u.a. The Labyrinth: Further Studies in the Relation Between Myth and Ritual in the Ancient World. London: Society for promoting Christian knowledge. New York: The Macmillan company, 1935.

Klein, Wolfgang. Sprache und Ritual. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1987.

Paul, Ingwer. Rituelle Kommunikation: sprachliche Verfahren zur Konstitution ritueller Bedeutung und zur Organisation des Rituals. Kommunikation und Institution. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1990.

Searle, John R: Sprechakte. Ein Sprachphilosophischer Essay. 6. Aufl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp 1997.

Werlen, Iwar. Ritual und Sprache. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1984.

Wheelock, Wade T. "The Problem of Ritual Language: From Information to Situation." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 50, no. 1 (1982): 49-71.


2.5.2 Semiotische Theorien

Burke, Kenneth. The Philosophy of Literary Form: Studies in Symbolic Action. 3. ed. Berkeley u.a.: University of California Press 1974.

Burke, Peter: "Historiker, Anthropologen und Symbole". In: R. Habermas und N. Minkmar (Hg.). Das Schwein des Häuptlings. Sechs Aufsätze zur Historischen Anthropologie. Wagenbachs Taschenbuch 212. Berlin: Wagenbach 1992: 21-41.

Eco, Umberto. Einführung in die Semiotik. 6. Aufl. München: Fink, 1988.

Firth, Raymond. Symbols: Public and Private. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University. Press, 1973.

Hanson, F. Allan. "The Semiotics of Ritual." Semiotica 33, no. 1/2 (1981): 169-78.

Jung, Hermann: "Zeichen und Symbol. Bestandsaufnahme und interdispziplinäre Perspektiven. Manfred Lurker zum Gedenken". In: Rück, P. (Hg.). Graphische Symbole in mittelalterlichen Urkunden. Beiträge zur diplomatischen Semiotik (Historische Hilfswissenschaften 3), Sigmaringen 1996: S.49-66.

Lawson, E. Thomas. "Ritual As Language." Religion 6 (1976): 123-39.

Lindgren, J. Ralph and Jay Knaak. Ritual and Semiotics. Critic of Institutions. New York: Peter Lang, 1997.

Mahapatra, Sitakant. The Realm of the Sacred: Verbal Symbolism and Ritual Structures. Calcutta, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Oelkers, Jürgen und Wegenast, Klaus (Hg.). Das Symbol - Brücke des Verstehens. Stuttgart, Berlin, Köln: Kohlhammer, 1991.

Scheffler, Israel. Symbolic Worlds: Art, Science, Language, Ritual. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Wiedenmann, Rainer E. Ritual und Sinntransformation: ein Beitrag zur Semiotik soziokultureller Interpenetrationsprozesse. Soziologische Schriften. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1991.


2.5.3 Kommunikationstheorien

Goffman, Erving. Interaction Ritual. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1967 (dt. Interaktionsrituale: Über Verhalten in direkter Kommunikation. 2. Aufl. Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1991).

Knuf, Joachim und H. Walter Schmitz. Ritualisierte Kommunikation und Sozialstruktur. Forschungsberichte des Instituts für Kommunikationsforschung und Phonetik der Universität Bonn. Hamburg: Buske, 1980.

Leach, Edmund. Culture and Communication. The Logic by which Symbols are Connected. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Lüger, Heinz-Helmut. Routinen und Rituale in der Alltagskommunikation. Fernstudienprojekt zur Fort und Weiterbildung im Bereich Germanistik und Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Berlin u.a.: Langenscheidt, 1993.

Paris, Rainer: "Konsens, Fiktion und Resonanz. Über einige Wirkungsbedingungen ritueller Kommunikation". In: J. Kopperschmidt (Hg.). Fest und Festrhetorik. Zu Theorie, Geschichte und Praxis der Epideiktik, Figuren, Band 7. München: Fink,1999: 267-280.

Rothenbuhler, Eric W. Ritual Communication: From Everyday Conversation to Mediated Ceremony. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1998.


2.6 Ethologische Theorien, Ritualisierung

Berghofer, Johannes. Das Ritual des Essens. Humanethologische Perpektiven. Innsbruck: Univ., 1999 [Dipl.-Arb].

Burkert, Walter. Creation of the Sacred. Tracks of Biology in Early Religions. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

________. "Fitness oder Opium? Die Fragestellung der Soziobiologie im Bereich alter Religionen." In: F. Stolz (Hg.). Homo naturaliter religiosus. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997: 13-38.

Butovskaia, M. L., A. V. Korotaev and Olga Khristoforova. Sociobiology of Ritual and Group Identity. A Homology of Animal and Human Behaviour. Annual Meeting of the European Sociobiological Society. And Concepts of Humans and Behaviour Patterns in the Cultures of the East and the West. Interdisciplinary Approach. Satellite Meeting. Proceedings of International Conference. Moscow: Russian State University for Humanities, 1998.

D'Aquili, Eugene G. "Human Ceremonial Ritual and the Modulation of Aggression." Zygon 20, (1985): 21-30.

________. "The Myth-Ritual Complex." Zygon 18 (1983): 247-69.

D'Aquili, Eugene G., Charles D. Laughlin and John McManus. The Spectrum of Ritual: A Biogenetic Structural Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

D'Aquili, Eugene G. and Andrew B. Newberg. "Liminality, Trance and Unitary States in Ritual and Meditation." Studia Liturgica 23, no. 1 (1993): 2-34.

Dissanayake, Ellen. "An Ethological View of Ritual and Art in Human Evolutionary History." Leonardo 12, no. 1 (1979): 27-31.

Eibl-Eibesfeld, I. "Ritual and Ritualization from a Biological Perspective." In: M. v. Cranach (ed.). Human Ethology. Claims and Limits of a New Discipline. Cambridge, Paris: Cambridge University Press: 1979, 3-55.

Erikson, Erik H. "The Development of Ritualization." In: Donald R. Cutler (ed.). The Religious Situation 1968. Boston: Beacon, 1968: 711-733.

________. "Ontogeny of Ritualization in Man." In: Rudolph Loewenstein et. al. (ed.). Psychoanalysis - A General Psychology. Repr. ed. New York: International Universities Press, 1966: 601-621.

________. Toys and Reasons: Stages in the Ritualization of Experience. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977.

Huxley, Julian (ed.). A Discussion on Ritualization of Behaviour in Animals and Man. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, no. 772, vol. 251. London: Royal Society, 1966.

Laughlin, Charles D. "Ritual and the Symbolic Function: A Summary of Biogenetic Structural Theory." Journal of Ritual studies 4, no. 1 (1990): 15-39.

Leach, Edmund. "Ritualization in Man in Relation to Conceptual and Social Developments." In: Julian Huxley (ed.) A Discussion on Ritualization. London: Royal Society, 1966: 403-408.

Turner, Victor. "Body, Brain and Culture." In: L. B. Turner (ed.). On the Edge of the Bush. Anthropology As Experience. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 1985: 249-274.

________. "The New Neurosociology." In: L. B. Turner (ed.). On the Edge of the Bush. Anthropology As Experience. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 1985: 275-290.

Wickler, Wolfgang. Stammesgeschichte und Ritualisierung: Zur Entstehung tierischer und menschllicher Verhaltensmuster. Piper Paperback. München: Piper, 1970.


3. Typologie der Rituale

3.1 Lebenszyklische Rituale (Rites de passage im engeren Sinne)

Bianchi, Ugo. Transition Rites. Cosmic, Social and Individual Order. Proceedings of the Finnish-Swedish-Italian Seminar Held At the Univ. Of Rome "La Sapienza", 24 - 28 March 1984. Storia Delle Religioni, 2. Roma: Bretschneider, 1986.

Cressy, David. Birth, Marriage, and Death: Ritual, Religion, and the Life-Cycle in Tudor and Stuart England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Gennep, Arnold van. Les rites de passage. Paris: Édition A. et J. Picard, 1981 (dt. Übergangsriten. Reprint. Frankfurt/M.: Campus Verlag, 1986).

Holm, Jean and John Bowker (eds.). Rites of passage. Themes in religious studies series. London: Pinter, 1994.

Mystical Rites and Rituals: Initiation and Fertility Rites, Sacrifice and Burial Customs, Incantation and Ritual Magic. London: Octopus Books: Phoebus, 1975.

Turner, Victor. "Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Periods in Rites des Passage." In The Forest of Symbols: Aspects of Ndembu Ritual, Victor Turner. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1964.


3.1.1 Geburt

Bowder, Caroline. Birth Rites. Brighton, Sussex: Harvester Press, 1983.

Damon, Frederick H. and Roy Wagner (eds.). Death Rituals and Life in the Societies of the Kula Ring. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1989.

Hart, Donn Vorhis, Richard J. Coughlin, and Phrayaa Anuman Rajadhon. Life and Ritual in old Siam. Southeast Asian Birth Customs. Three Studies in Human Reproduction. Behavior Science Monographs. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press, 1965.

Musacchio, Jacqueline Marie. The Art and Ritual of Childbirth in Renaissance Italy. New Haven, Conn., London: Yale University Press, 1999.

Paige, Karen and Jeffery M. Paige. The Politics of Reproductive Ritual. Berkeley u.a.: University of California Press, 1981.



3.1.2 Initiation

Bleeker, C. J. (ed.). Initiation: Contributions to the Theme of the Study-Conference of the International Association for the History of Religions, Held at Strasburg, September 17th to 22nd 1964. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1965.

Brandon, S. G. F. The Significance of Time in Some Ancient Initiatory Rituals. Leiden, 1965.

Church of England. Initiation Services: Alternative Services Series 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Eliade, Mircea. Rites and Symbols of Initiation. New York: Harper & Row, 1958.

La Fontaine, J. S. Initiation. A Pelican Book. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985.

Maldonado, Luis and David Power (eds.). Structures of Initiation in Crisis. Concilium. New York: Seabury Press, 1979.

Moreau, Alain (ed.). L'initiation. Actes du colloque international de Montpellier 11 - 14 avril 1991. Montpellier: Séminaire díÉtudes Mentalités Antique, 1991.

Nicoullaud, Charles. L'initiation maconnique: l'initiation dans les sociétès secrètes. Paris: Perrin, 1913.

Popp, Volker (Hg.). Initiation: Zeremonien der Statusänderung und des Rollenwechsels; eine Anthologie. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1969.

Ries, Julien (ed.). Les rites d'initiation: actes du colloque de Liège et de Louvain-la-Neuve, 20 - 21 nov. 1984. Louvain-la-Neuve: Centre d'Histoire des Religions, 1986.

Snoek, Joannes Augustinus Maria. Initiations: A Methodological Approach to the Application of Classification and Definition Theory in the Study of Rituals. Pijnacker: Dutch Efficiency Bureau, 1987.

Young, Frank W. Initiation Ceremonies: A Cross-Cultural Study of Status Dramatization. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.


3.1.3 Heirat

Avagianou, Aphrodite. Sacred Marriage in the Rituals of Greek Religion. European University Studies. Series XV, vol. 54. Bern: Peter Lang, 1991.

Hamilton, Augusta. Marriage Rites, Customs and Ceremonies of All Nations of the Universe. London: printed for Chapple and son, Andrew, J. Bumpus, and E. Barrett, 1822.

Kramer, Samuel Noah. The Sacred Marriage Rite: Aspects of Faith, Myth, and Ritual in Ancient Sumer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969.

Thomsen, Ole. Ritual and desire: Catullus 61 and 62, and Other Ancient Documents on Wedding and Marriage. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1992.

Raes, Alphonse. Le mariage: sa celebration et sa spiritualité dans les eglises. Collection Irenikon. Paris: Éditions de Chevetogne, 1958.


3.1.4 Tod und Ahnenkult

Aldhouse-Green, Stephen. Art, Ritual and Death in Prehistory: Explaining the Unexplainable. Cardiff: National Museums & Galleries of Wales, 1996.

Binski, Paul. Medieval Death: Ritual and Representation. London: British Museum Press, 1996.

Cederroth, S., C. Corlin and J. Lindström (eds). On the Meaning of Death: Essays on Mortuary Rituals and Eschatological Beliefs. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell, 1988.

Cole, Susan Letzler. The Absent One: Mourning Ritual, Tragedy, and the Performance of Ambivalence. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1985.

Danforth, Loring M. The Death Rituals of Rural Greece. Princeton, N.J., Guildford: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Davies, Douglas James. Death, Ritual, and Belief: The Rhetoric of Funerary Rites. London, Washington, D.C.: Cassell, 1997.

Davies, Jon. Ritual and Remembrance: Responses to Death in Human Societies. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994.

Finn, Thomas M. From Death to Rebirth: Ritual and Conversion in Antiquity. New York: Paulist Press, 1997.

Houlbrooke, Ralph A. Death, Ritual, and Bereavement. London, New York: Routledge in association with the Social History Society of the United Kingdom, 1989.

Llewellyn, Nigel. The Art of Death: Visual Culture in the English Death Ritual C.1500-C.1800. London: Reaktion, 1991.

Metcalf, Peter and Richard Huntington. Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual. 2nd revised ed. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Morris, Ian. Death-Ritual and Social Structure in Classical Antiquity. Key Themes in Ancient History. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Naylor, Maura J. A. The Funeral: The Management of Death and Its Rituals in a Northern, Industrial City. Leeds, 1989 [Ph.D. thesis].

Paxton, Frederick S. Christianizing Death: The Creation of a Ritual Process in Early Medieval Europe. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990.

Prioreschi, Plinio. A History of Human Responses to Death: Mythologies, Rituals and Ethics. Studies in Health and Human Services, no. 17. New York: Lewiston, 1990.

Purdum, Elizabeth D. and J. Anthony Paredes. "Rituals of Death: Capital Punishment and Human Sacrifice". In: Michael Radelet (ed.). Facing the Death Penalty: Essays on Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989: 139-155.

Rappaport, Roy A. Pigs for the Ancestors. Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967.

Rushton, Lucy. Death Customs. Comparing Religions. New York: Thomson Learning, 1993.

Sojer-Stani, Maria. Sterberiten, ihre Funktion und Bedeutung im Heute unserer Gesellschaft. Salzburg: Univ., 1995 [Dipl.-Arb.].

Stears, Karen Elizabeth. Women and the Family in the Funerary Ritual and Art of Classical Athens. London: University of London, 1993.


3.1.5 Andere (Hausbau, Schwellenrituale)

Prahl, Hans-Werner. Gesellschaftliche Funktionen von akademischen Abschlussprüfungen und Graden. Sozialhistorische und ideologiekritische Untersuchung zur Akademischen Initiationskultur. Kiel: 1975 [Diss.].


3.2 Religiöse Rituale

3.2.1 Tempelritual

Derks, Ton. Gods, temples and ritual practices. The Transformation of Religious Ideas and Values in Roman Gaul. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1998.

Haran, Menahem. Temples and Temple-service in Ancient Israel: an Inquiry into Biblical Cult Phenomena and the Historical Setting of the Priestly School. 2nd reprint. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1995.

Helck, Wolfgang (Hg.). Tempel und Kult. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1987.

Lauer, Simon. Tempelkult und Tempelzerstörung (70 n. Chr.). Judaica et Christiana, 15. Bern: Peter Lang, 1994.

Pavlovic, Miodrag. Opfer und Tempel: Betrachtungen über Formen und Riten. Graz u.a: Droschl, 1993.


3.2.2 Prozession, Wallfahrt

Barber, Richard. Pilgrimages. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1991.

Baumer, Iso. Wallfahrt als Handlungsspiel. Ein Beitrag zum Verständnis religiösen Handelns. Bern: Peter Lang, 1977.

Coleman, Simon. Pilgrimage, Past and Present: Sacred Travel and Sacred Space in the World Religions. London: British Museum Press, 1995.

Dubey, D. P. Pilgrimage Studies: Sacred Places, Sacred Traditions. Allahabad: Society of Pilgrimage Studies, 1995.

Felbecker, Sabine. Die Prozession: Historische und systematische Untersuchungen zu einer liturgischen Ausdruckshandlung. Münsteraner Theologische Abhandlungen, no. 39. Altenberge: Oros-Verlag, 1993.

Jha, Makhan. Dimensions of Pilgrimage: An Anthropological Appraisal: Based on the Transactions of a World Symposium on Pilgrimage. New Delhi: Inter-India Publications, 1985.

LeBeau, Bryan F. and Menahem Mor. Pilgrims & Travelers to the Holy Land. Studies in Jewish Civilization. Omaha, Neb.: Creighton University Press, 1996.

Morinis, E. Alan and Robert H. Stoddard (eds.). Sacred Places, Sacred Spaces. The Geography of Pilgrimages. Baton Rouge, LA: Geoscience Publications, Dept. of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, 1997.

Turner, Victor. "The centre out there: pilgrims goal", History of Religions 12 (1973): 191-230.

________. "Pilgrimage and Communitas", Studia Missionalia 23 (1974): 305-27.


3.2.3 Opferrituale

Bourdillon, M. F. C. and Meyer Fortes (eds). Sacrifice. London: Published by Academic Press for the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1980.

Burkert, Walter. Homo necans: Interpretationen altgriechischer Opferriten und Mythen. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1997.

Burkert, Walter, Ren Girard, Jonathan Z. Smith and Robert Hamerton-Kelly. Violent Origins. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1987.

Drexel, Josef. Die Illusion des Opfers. Abriß der Opfertheorien. München: Akademischer Verlag, 1993.

Hubert, Henri and Marcel Mauss. Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function. London: University of Chicago Press, 1964.

Knipe, David M. "Stalking the Sacrifice." Journal of Asian Studies 45, no. 2 (1986): 355-8.

Talbott, Rick Franklin. Sacred Sacrifice: Ritual Paradigms in Vedic Religion and Early Christianity. American University Studies. Series IX, History. New York: Peter Lang, 1995.


3.2.4 Reinigungsrituale

Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966.

Hooykaas-van Leeuwen Boomkamp, Jacoba Hindrika. Ritual Purification of a Balinese Temple. Verhandelingen Der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie Van Wetenschappen. Afd. Letterkunde. Nieuve Reeks, Deel 68, no. 4. Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche Uitg. Mij., 1961.

Kiuchi, N. The Purification Offering in the Priestly Literature: Its Meaning and Function. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. Supplement Series. Sheffield, England: JSOT Press, 1987.

Parker, Robert. Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.


3.3 Heilrituale, Besessenheit, Exorzismus

3.3.1 Schamanistische Rituale

Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam. Shamanic Worlds: Rituals and Lore of Siberia and Central Asia. Rev. and expanded ed. Armonk, N.Y., London: North Castle Books, 1997.

Balzer, Marjorie Mandelstam (ed.). Shamanism: Soviet Studies of Traditional Religion in Siberia and Central Asia. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.

Heinze, Ruth-Inge (ed.). International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing 5, 1988, San Rafael, Calif. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Study of Shamanism and Alternate Modes of Healing. Berkeley: Independent Scholars of Asia, 1989.

Hultkrantz, Ake. Shamanic Healing and Ritual Drama: Health and Medicine in Native North American Religious Traditions. Health/Medicine and the Faith Traditions. New York: Crossroad, 1992.

Lewis, Ioan Myrddin. Ecstatic Religion: An Anthropological Study of Spirit Possession and Shamanism. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1971.

Müller, Klaus E. Schamanismus: Heiler, Geister, Rituale. München: C. H. Beck, 1997.

Novik, E. S. Ritual und Folklore im sibirischen Schamanismus: eine vergleichende Strukturanalyse. Hamburg: Schletzer, 1989.

Rosenbohm, Alexandra. Halluzinogene Drogen im Schamanismus: Mythos und Ritual im kulturellen Vergleich. Marburger Studien zur Völkerkunde. Berlin: Reimer, 1991.

Walraven, Boudewijn. Songs of the Shaman: The Ritual Chants of the Korean Mudang. London: Kegan Paul International, 1994.


3.3.2 Therapeutische Rituale

Holz, Karin und Carmen Zahn. Rituale und Psychotherapie. Transkulturelle Perspektiven. Berlin: VWB, 1995.

Kaiser, Rudolf. Indianische Heilkunst: Pflanzen, Rituale und Heilungsbilder nordamerikanischer Schamanen. Herder Spektrum. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1996.

Kemp, P. Healing Ritual: Studies in the Technique and Tradition of the Southern Slavs. London: Faber and Faber limited, 1935.

Martinez, Ricardo Arguijo. The Healing Ritual. Berkeley, Calif.: Tonatiuh-Quinto Sol, 1983.

Meyer, Marvin W. and Paul Allan Mirecki (eds.). Ancient Magic and Ritual Power. Religions in the Graeco-Roman World. Leiden, New York: E.J. Brill, 1995.

Pfleiderer, Beatrix, Katarina Greifeld and Wolfgang Bichmann. Ritual und Heilung: eine Einührung in die Ethnomedizin. 2., vollst. berarb. und erw. Neuaufl. Ethnologische Paperbacks. Berlin: Reimer, 1995.

Quekelbergh, Renaud van (Hg.). Trance, Besessenheit, Heilrituale und Psychotherapie. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, 1996.

Sandner, Donald. So möge mich das Böse in Scharen verlassen: eine psychologische Studie über Navajo-Heilrituale. Solothurn u.a.: Walther, 1994.

Turner, Edith. Experiencing Ritual: A New Interpretation of African Healing. Series in Contemporary Ethnography. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.


3.4 Ernterituale, Fruchtbarkeitsrituale

Bailey, Donna and Anna Sproule. Harvest Festival in Israel. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education, 1989.

Bord, Janet and Colin. Earth rites: Fertility Rites in Pre-Industrial Britain. London, New York: Granada, 1982.

Harrelson, Walter J. From Fertility Cult to Worship. Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1969.

Hudson, Rachel. Fertility: Images and Icons, Rites and Rituals. Colchester: M.A. Gallery Studies Students, 1994.

Magini, Leonardo. Le feste di Venere: fertilità femminile e configurazioni astrali nel calendario di Roma antica. Roma: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1996.

Muller, Carol Ann. Rituals of Fertility and the Sacrifice of Desire: Nazarite Women's Performance in South Africa. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Voigt, Ziriah. Ritual und Tanz im Jahreskreis. Bonn: G. Meussling, 1997.



3.5 Politische und säkulare Rituale

3.5.1 Politische Rituale

Australian Journal of Anthropology. Special Issue: Politics of Ritual. Sydney: Anthropological Society of New South Wales, 1992.

Bergesen, Albert. The Sacred and the Subversive: Political Witch-Hunts as National Rituals. Monograph Series / Society for the Scientific Study of Religion. Storrs, Conn: Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1984.

Boholm, Asa (ed.). Political Ritual. Gothenburg: IASSA, 1996.

Bowie, Katherine Ann. Rituals of National Loyalty: An Anthropology of the State and the Village Scout Movement in Thailand. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

Bryan, Dominic, T. G. Fraser and Seamus Dunn. Political Rituals: Loyalist Parades in Portadown. Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of Ulster, 1995.

Bryant, Lawrence M. The King and the City in the Parisian Royal Entry Ceremony: Politics, Ritual, and Art in the Renaissance. Travaux d'Humanisme et Renaissance CCXVI. Geneve: Librairie Droz, 1986.

Cannadine, David and S. R. F. Price. Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies. Past and Present Publications. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Case, Sue-Ellen and Janelle Reinelt (eds.). The Performance of Power: Theatrical Discourse and Politics. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991.

Edelman, Murray. Politik als Ritual: die symbolische Funktion staatlicher Institutionen und politischen Handelns. Neuausg. Campus-Verlag, 1976; reprint, Frankfurt/M.: 1990.

Evans, Grant. The Politics of Ritual and Rememberance. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998.

Feeley-Harnik, Gillian: "Herrscherkunst und Herrschaft: Neue Forschungen zum sakralen Königtum". In: Lüdtke, A. (Hg.). Herrschaft als soziale Praxis. Historische und sozial-anthropologische Studien (Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte 91), Göttingen 1991, 195-253.

Geertz, Clifford: "Centers, Kings and Charisma: Reflections on the Symbolics of Power". In: J. Ben-David and T N. Clark (eds.). Culture and its Creators. Essays in Honor of Edward Shils. Chicago, London: 1977: 150-71, 309-14 .

Gluckman, Max. Politics, Law and Ritual in Tribal Society. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co., 1965.

Hartmann, Jürgen: Staatszeremoniell, Köln: Heymann, 1988.

Holdrege, Barbara A. (ed.). Ritual and Power: A Special Issue of the Journal of Ritual Studies Based on the Proceedings of the Santa Barbara Conference on Ritual and Power. Pittsburgh, PA: Dept. of Religious Studies, 1990.

Kertzer, David I. Ritual, Politics and Power. New Haven u.a.: Yale University Press, 1988.

Liebes, Tamar, James Curran and Elihu Katz. Media, Ritual, and Identity. Communication and Society. London, New York: Routledge, 1998.

Lorini, Alessandra. Rituals of Race: American Public Culture and the Search for Racial Democracy. Carter G. Woodson Institute Series in Black Studies. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999.

Plasser, Fritz (Hg.). Demokratierituale: zur politischen Kultur der Informationsgesellschaft. Studien zu Politik und Verwaltung, no. 9. Wien: Böhlau, 1985.

Rivière, Claude. Les Liturgies Politiques. Paris: Pr. Univ. de France, 1988.

________. Les Rites Profanes. Paris: Pr. Univ. de France, 1995.

Roth, Roland (Hg.). Parlamentarisches Ritual und politische Alternativen. Frankfurt/M.: Campus-Verlag, 1980.

Russell, Susan Diana. Ritual, Power, and Economy: Upland-Lowland Contrasts in Mainland Southeast Asia. Occasional Paper / Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Monograph Series on Southeast Asia, no. 14. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University, 1989.

Scott, Sara Elizabeth. The Politics and Experience of Ritual Abuse. Manchester: University of Manchester, 1997.

Sieferle, Rolf Peter. Kulturen der Gewalt: Ritualisierung und Symbolisierung von Gewalt in der Geschichte. Frankfurt/M. u.a.: Campus-Verl., 1998.

Wilentz, Sean (ed.). Rites of Power: Symbolism, Ritual, and Politics Since the Middle Ages. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.


3.5.2 Krönungsrituale

Angenendt, Arnold: "Rex et Sacerdos. Zur Genese der Königssalbung". In: N. Kamp und J. Wollasch (Hg.). Tradition als historische Kraft. Interdisziplinäre Forschungen zur Geschichte des früheren Mittelalters. Berlin, New York 1982: 100-118.

Bak, János. Coronations: Medieval and Early Modern Monarchic Ritual. Berkeley u.a.: University of California Press, 1990.

Bouman, Cornelius Adrianus. Sacring and Crowning: The Development of the Latin Ritual for the Anointing of Kings and the Coronation of an Emperor Before the Eleventh Century. Groningen: J. B. Wolters, 1957.

Butler, Thomas. The Crown Jewels and the Coronation Ritual. London: Pitkin, 1973.

Duchhardt, Heinz (Hg.). Herrscherweihe und Königskrönung im frühneuzeitlichen Europa. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1983

Enright, Michael J. Iona, Tara, and Soissons: The Origins of the Royal Anointing Ritual. Arbeiten zur Frühmittelalterforschung. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1985.

Everett, Henry, Paul Bradshaw and Colin Buchanan. Coronations, Past, Present and Future. Cambridge: Grove Books, 1997.


3.5.3 Rechtsrituale

Duchhardt, H. und G. Melville (Hg.). Im Spannungsfeld von Recht und Ritual: soziale Kommunikation in Mittelalter und früher Neuzeit. Köln u.a.: Böhlau, 1997.

Fögen, M. Therese. Ritual und Rechtsfindung.

Prodi, Paolo: Das Sakrament der Herrschaft. Der politische Eid in der Verfassungsgeschichte des Okzidents. Schriften des Italienisch-Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Trient, no. 11. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, 1997.


3.5.4 Säkulare Rituale (Alltag, Medien, Familie etc.)

Beil, Brigitte. Schlummertuch und Hochzeitstag. Rituale in der Familie. München: Dt. Taschenbuch Verlag, 1997.

Bossard, James H. and Eleanor S. Boll. Ritual in Family Living. A Contemporary Study. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1950.

Friebertshauser, Barbara. Übergangsphase Studienbeginn: eine Feldstudie über Riten der Initiation in eine studentische Fachkultur. Weinheim, München: Juventa-Verl., 1992.

Goethals, Gregor T. The TV Ritual: Worship At the Video Altar. Boston: Beacon Press, 1981.

Hahn, A. "Kultische und säkulare Riten und Zeremonien in soziologischer Sicht". In: ders. u.a. Anthropologie des Kults. Freiburg u.a. 1977.

Imber-Black, E. et al. Rituals in Family and Family Therapy. New York: Norton 1988.

Lane, Christel. The Rites of Rulers: Ritual in Industrial Society: The Soviet Case. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

McLaren, Peter. Schooling As a Ritual Performance: Towards a Political Economy of Educational Symbols and Gestures. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 1993.

Moore, Sally Falk and Barbara G. Myerhoff. Secular Ritual. Assen u.a : van Gorkum, 1977.

Muir, E. Ritual in Early and Modern Europe. Cambridge: 1997.

Nelson, Janet. Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe. London, Ronceverte, W. Va.: Hambledon Press, 1986.

Peacock, James L. Rites of Modernization: Symbolic and Social Aspects of Indonesian Proletarian Drama. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Prahl, Hans-Werner. Gesellschaftliche Funktionen von akademischen Abschlussprüfungen und Graden. Sozialhistorische und ideologiekritische Untersuchung zur akadademischen. Initiationskultur. Kiel: Univ., 1975 [Diss.].

Pross, H. und C.-G. Rath (Hg.). Rituale der Medienkommunikation. Berlin: Guttandin & Hoppe, 1983.

Schürmann, Thomas. Tisch- und Grußsitten im Zivilisationsprozeß. Beiträge zur Volkskunde in Nordwestdeutschland, 82. Münster, New York: 1994.

Soeffner, Hans-Georg. Die Ordnung der Rituale. Die Auslegung des Alltags II. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1992.

Steffen, Katharina. Übergangsrituale einer auto-mobilen Gesellschaft: eine kulturanthropologische Skizze. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1990.

Steuten, Ulrich. Das Ritual in der Lebenswelt des Alltags. Focus kritische Universität. Giessen: Focus-Verl., 1998.

Thaler, Markus. Der mediale Schwellenzustand im Fernsehritual. Fernsehen als Übergangsritual am Beispiel von Präsentation und Rezeption von Nachrichtensendungen. Wien: 1993 [Diss.].

Thomasn, Günter. Medien. Ritual. Religion. Zur religiösen Funktion des Fernsehens. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1998.

Weidmann, Reiner. Rituale im Krankenhaus. Eine Ethnopsychoanalytische Studie zum Leben in einer Institution. Wiesbaden: Dt. Univ.-Verl., 1990.


3.6 Ludative Rituale

3.6.1 Spiel und Sport

Carter, John Marshall and Arnd Kruger (eds.). Ritual and Record: Sports Records and Quantification in Pre-Modern Societies. Contributions to the Study of World History. Westport, Conn., London: Greenwood, 1990.

Chvatal, Karl-Michael. Medienberichterstattung über Rituale im Sport. Eine Analyse der Verstärkung von Aggressions- und Bindungsritualen im Sport durch Tageszeitungen und Fernsehen. Salzburg: Univ., 1987 [Diss.].

Gebauer, Gunter und Christoph Wulf. Spiel, Ritual, Geste: mimetisches Handeln in der sozialen Welt. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1998.

Guttmann, Allen. From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

Huizinga, Johan. Homo Ludens: vom Ursprung der Kultur im Spiel. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1987.

Morris, Desmond. Das Spiel: Faszination und Ritual des Fußballs; das Spiel, mit dem wir leben. München u.a.: Droemer Knaur, 1981.

Spence, Lewis. Myth and Ritual in Dance, Game, and Rhyme. London: Watts, 1947.


3.6.2 Feste

Alewyn, Richard: Das große Welttheater. Die Epoche der höfischen Feste. Beckísche Reihe 389, München: C. H. Beck, 1989.

Burland, C. A. Echoes of Magic: a Study of Seasonal Festivals through the Ages. London: P. Davies, 1972

Cooper, Jane. Muslim Festivals. Celebrations. [s.l.]: Wayland Publishers, 1989.

Dineen, Jacqueline, Robert R. Ingpen and Philip Wilkinson. Feasts and Festivals. Peoples and Customs of the World. London: Dragon's World, 1995.

Hugger, Paul, Walter Burkert und Ernst Lichtenhahn (Hg.). Stadt und Fest. Zu Geschichte und Gegenwart europäischer Festkultur. Festschrift der Phil. Fakultät I der Universität Zürich zum 2000-Jahr-Jubiläum der Stadt Zürich, Unterägeri, Stuttgart 1987.

Kopperschmidt, Josef: "Zwischen Affirmation und Subversion. Einleitende Bemerkungen zur Theorie und Rhetorik des Festes". In: ders. (Hg.). Fest und Festrhetorik. Zu Theorie, Geschichte und Praxis der Epideiktik (Figuren Band 7) , München 1999, S.9-22.

Nelson, Gertrud Mueller. To Dance with God: Family Ritual and Community Celebration. New York: Paulist Press, 1986.

Turner, Victor (ed.). Celebration, Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982.

Vainstein, Yaacov. The Cycle of the Jewish Year: a Study of the Festivals and of Selections from the Liturgy. Jerusalem: Dept. for Torah Education and Culture in the Diaspora, World Zionist Organization, 1953.


3.6.3 Tanz- und Musikrituale, rituelle Kunst

Aldhouse-Green, Stephen. Art, Ritual and Death in Prehistory: Explaining the Unexplainable. Cardiff: National Museums & Galleries of Wales, 1996.

Astrauskas, Rimantas (ed.). Ritual and Music: Papers Presented At the International Ethnomusicologist Conference Held in Vilnius, Lithuania, December 11 - 12, 1997. Vilnius: Lithuanian Acad. of Music, Dep. of Ethnomusicology, 1999.

Bailey, Marianne Wichmann. The Ritual Theater of Aimé Césaire: Mythic Structures of the Dramatic Imagination. Etudes littéraires Françaises, no. 49. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1992.

Barthelmes, Barbara (Hg.). Musik und Ritual: fünf Kongressbeiträge, zwei freie Beiträge und ein Seminarbericht. Mainy: Schott, 1999.

Behague, Gerard. Music and Dance in Ritual and Ceremony. [s.l]: 1992.

Brandon, S. G. F. Man and God in Art and Ritual. A Study of Iconography, Architecture and Ritual Action As Primary Evidence of Religious Belief and Practice. New York: Scribner, 1975.

Braun, Rudolf und David Gugerli: Macht des Tanzes ñ Tanz der Mächtigen. Hoffeste und Herrschaftszeremoniell 1550-1914, München 1993.

Deegan, Mary Jo. American Ritual Dramas: Social Rules and Cultural Meanings. Contributions in Sociology, no. 76. New York u. a.: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Edwards, Francis. Ritual and Drama: the Mediaeval Theatre. Guildford: Lutterworth, 1976.

Elam, Keir. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

Foley, Edward. Ritual Music: Studies in Liturgical Musicology. Studies in Liturgy and Music. Beltsville, Md.: Pastoral Press, 1995.

Hanna, Judith Lynne. To Dance is Human: a Theory of Nonverbal Communication. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

________. Dance, Sex, and Gender: Signs of Identity, Dominance, Defiance, and Desire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Harrison, Jane. Ancient Art and Ritual. Home University Library of Modern Knowledge. London: Williams and Norgate, 1913.

Highwater, Jamake. Dance: Rituals of Experience. 3rd ed. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Innes, Christopher. Holy Theatre: Ritual and the Avant Garde. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Jennings, Sue. Theatre, Ritual, and Transformation: The Senoi Temiars. London, New York: Routledge, 1995.

Nürnberger, Marianne and Stephanie Schmiderer (Hg.). Tanzkunst, Ritual und Bühne: Begegnungen zwischen Kulturen. Frankfurt/M.: IKO-Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation, 1996.

Quantrill, Malcolm. Ritual and Response in Architecture. London: Lund Humphries, 1974.

Schechner, Richard. Theater-Anthropologie: Spiel und Ritual im Kulturvergleich. Rowohlts Enzyklopädie. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1990.

Schechner, Richard and Willa Appel. By Means of Performance: Intercultural Studies of Theatre and Ritual. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Sinding-Larsen, Staale. Iconography and Ritual: A Study of Analytical Perspectives. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget As, 1984.


4. Phänomenologie des Rituals

4.1 Kleidung

Bringemeier, Martha. Priester- und Gelehrtenkleidung: Tunika, Sutane, Schaube, Talar. Ein Beitrag zu einer geistesgeschichtlichen Kostümforschung. Rheinisch-Westfälische Zeitschrift für Volkskunde, Beiheft 1. Münster: Volkskundl. Komm. d. Landschaftsverb. Westfalen-Lippe, 1974.

Flüeler, Augustina: Das sakrale Gewand. Würzburg: Echter Verlag, 1964.

Innemée, Karel C. Ecclesiastical Dress of the Medieval Near East. Leiden u.a.: E. J. Brill, 1992.

Mayo, Janet. A History of Ecclesiatical Dress. London: Batsford, 1985.

Piepkorn, Arthur Carl. Die liturgischen Gewänder in der lutherischen Kirche seit 1555. 2. Aufl. Lüdenscheid, Lobetal: Edel, 1987.


4.2 Schmuck, Dekoration

Metwally, Emad el. Entwicklung der Grabdekoration in den altägyptischen Privatgräbern. Ikonographische Analyse der Totenkultdarstellungen von der Vorgeschichte bis zum Ende der 4. Dynastie. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1992.


4.3 Haar

Hiltebeitel, Alf and Barbara D. Miller. Hair: its power and meaning in Asian cultures. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Obeyesekere, Gananath. Medusa's hair: an essay on personal symbols and religious experience. Chicago u.a.: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

Trichet, Louis. La tonsure: vie et mort d'une pratique ecclésiastique. Paris: Ed. du Cerf, 1990.


4.4 Körpersalbung, -waschung oder -verletzung

Bigelow, Jim. The Joy of Uncircumcising: Exploring Circumcision: History, Myths, Psychology, Restoration, Sexual Pleasure, and Human Rights. 2. ed. Aptos, CA: Hourglass Book Pub., 1998.

Chebel, Malek. Histoire de la circoncision: des origines à nos jours. Paris: Balland, 1992.

Douglas, Mary. Ritual, Tabu, Körpersymbolik. Sozialanthropologische Studien in Industriegesellschaft und Stammeskultur. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp, 1974.

Enright, Michael J. Iona, Tara, and Soissons: The Origins of the Royal Anointing Ritual. Arbeiten zur Frühmittelalterforschung. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1985.

Kutsch, Ernst. Salbung als Rechtsakt im Alten Testament und im Alten Orient. Berlin: Töpelmann, 1963.

Lindbladh, Nils-Henrik: Anointing as an ordination problem. Lund: Univ., 1984 [Diss.].

Pochmann, Hans. Absichtliche Körperverstümmelungen und -verletzungen aus religiösen, pseudoästhetischen und anderen Motiven bei den Völkern und in der Geschichte der Menschheit. 2. ed. Innsbruck: Kultur-Verlag für Philosophie u. Wissenschaften, 1998.

Snowman, Jacob and L. V. Snowman. The Surgery of Ritual Circumcision. 3d ed. London: Initiation Society, 1962.

Stöckli, Dominique Béguin. Genitale Verstümmelung von Frauen: eine Bibliographie. Arbeitsblätter des Instituts für Ethnologie der Universität Bern, 8. Bern: Univ., Inst. für Ethnologie, 1993.


4.5 Essen

Berghofer, Johannes. Das Ritual des Essens. Humanethologische Perpektiven. Innsbruck: Univ., 1999 [Dipl.-Arb].

Curran, Patricia. Grace Before Meals: Food Ritual and Body Discipline in Convent Culture. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989.

Visser, Margaret. The Rituals of Dinner: The Origins, Evolution, Eccentricities and Meaning of Table Manners. London: Penguin, 1993.


4.6 Tausch

Berking, Helmuth. Schenken. Zur Anthropologie des Gebens. Frankfurt/M.: Campus-Verlag 1996.

Foster, Robert J. Social Reproduction and History in Melanesia: Mortuary Ritual, Gift Exchange, and Custom in the Tanga Islands. Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology, no. 96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Godelier, Maurice. Das Rätsel der Gabe. Geld, Geschenke, heilige Objekte. München: C. H. Beck 1999.

Knuf, Joachim."Greeting and Leave-taking: A Bibliography of Sources for the Study of Ritualized Communication", In Research on Language and Social Interaction 24 (1990/91): 405-48.

Komter, Aafke E. (ed.): The Gift. An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Amsterdam 1996.

Mauss, Marcel. Die Gabe: Form und Funktion des Austauschs in archaischen Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1968.

Starobinski, Jean: Gute Gaben, schlimme Gaben. Die Ambivalenz sozialer Gesten. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer, 1994.

Voss, Andreas. Betteln und Spenden: eine soziologische Studie über Rituale freiwilliger Armenunterstützung, ihre historischen und aktuellen Formen sowie ihre sozialen Leistungen. Materiale Soziologie: TB. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1993.

Weber-Kellermann, Ingeborg. "Über den Brauch des Schenkens". In: Fritz Harkort (Hg.). Volksüberlieferung. Festschrift K. Ranke. Göttingen: Schwartz, 1968: 1-8.


4.7. Choreographie

4.8 Rituelle Orte (vgl. 3.2.2 Prozession, Wallfahrt)

Bürgel, Rainer. Raum und Ritual. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1995.

Coleman, Simon. Pilgrimage, Past and Present: Sacred Travel and Sacred Space in the World Religions. London: British Museum Press, 1995.

Gorman, Frank H. The Ideology of Ritual: Space, Time and Status in the Priestly Theology. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. Supplement Series. Sheffield, Eng.: JSOT Press, 1990.

Grimes, Ronald L. Reading, Writing, and Ritualizing: Ritual in Fictive, Liturgical, and Public Places. Washington, D.C.: Pastoral Press, 1993.

Kryder, Rowena Pattee. Sacred Ground to Sacred Space: Visionary Ecology, Perennial Wisdom, Environmental Ritual and Art. Santa Fe, N.M.: Bear & Co. Pub., 1994.

Lipp, Wolfgang: "Der öffentliche Stadtraum und das religiöse Fest". In: Bürgel, R. (Hg.). Raum und Ritual. Kirchbau und Gottesdienst in theologischer und ästhetischer Sicht, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1995: 11-23.

Lundquist, John M. The Temple: Meeting Place of Heaven and Earth. Art and Imagination. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.

Paravicini, Werner: "Zeremoniell und Raum". In: ders. (Hg.). Zeremoniell und Raum. 4. Symposium der Residenzen-Kommission der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, veranstaltet gemeinsam mit dem Deutschen Historischen Institut Paris und dem Historischen Institut der Universität Potsdam. Potsdam, 25. bis 27. September 1994. Residenzenforschung 6, Sigmaringen 1997: 11-38.

Thompson, Fred S., Sheri Blake and Yasumasa Someya. Ritual and Space. Waterloo, Ont.: University of Waterloo Press, 1988.


4.9 Rituelle Zeiten (vgl. 3.4 Erntrituale, Fruchtbarkeitsrituale)

Brandon, S. G. F. The Significance of Time in Some Ancient Initiatory Rituals. Leiden, 1965.

Corbin, Henry. Cyclical Time and Ismaili Gnosis. London: Kegan Paul, 1983.

Gorman, Frank H. The Ideology of Ritual: Space, Time and Status in the Priestly Theology. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. Supplement Series. Sheffield, Eng.: JSOT Press, 1990.


4.10 rituelle Gegenstände

Furst, Peter T. Flesh of the Gods: The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972.

Schleiffer, Hedwig (ed.). Narcotic Plants of the Old World Used in Rituals and Everyday Life: An Anthology of Texts From Ancient Times to the Present. Monticello, N.Y.: Lubrecht & Cramer, 1979.


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