Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

Banaras Bibliography

Copyright Jörg Gengnagel & Axel Michaels

Revised and updated, July 2011


1. Banaras in General

All India Kashiraj Trust (ed.). 1981. Vārāṇasī. An Introduction to the Greatness of the City. Varanasi.

Bhattacharya, B. 1999. Varanasi Rediscovered. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Cape, C. Phillips. 1909. Benares. The Stronghold of Hinduism. London.

Couté, Pierre-Daniel & Jean-Michel Léger. 1989. Bénarès. Un Voyage d'architecture. Paris: Edition Créaphis.

Dyer, Geoff. 2009. Jeff in Venice, Death in Varanasi. Pantheon Books.

Eck, Diana L. 1983. Banaras. City of Light. London: Routledge. [German by Bettina Bäumer: Banares. Stadt des Lichts. Frankfurt am Main, Insel-Verlag: 1989].

Freitag, Sandria B. (ed.). 1989. Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press. [http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft6p3007sk&brand=ucpress].

— 1989. “State and Community: Symbolic Popular Protest in Banaras's Public Arenas”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 203-228.

Greaves, Edwin. 1909. Kashi. The City Illustrious. Or, Benares. Allahabad: The Indian Press. [http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/greaves1909].

Gutschow, Niels. 2006. Benares. The Sacred Landscape of Vārāṇasī. Stuttgart/London: Edition Axel Menges.

Gutschow, Niels & Axel Michaels. 1993. Benares. Tempel und religiöses Leben in der heiligen Stadt der Hindus. Köln: Dumont Buchverlag.

Havell, Ernest B. 1912. Benares. The Sacred City. Sketches of Hindu Life and Religion. 2nd ed. London: Thacker & Co. [http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/havell1912].

Hertel, Bradley R. & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). 1993. Living Banaras. Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Joshi, Esha Basanti (ed.). 1965. Uttar Pradesh District Gazetteers. Varanasi. Lucknow: Governement of Uttar Pradesh.

Lannoy, Richard. 1999. Benares Seen from Within. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

— 2002. Benares: A World within a World. The Microcosm of Kashi Yesterday and Tomorrow. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series 2. Varanasi: Indica Books. [Revised text of Lannoy 1999 with a small section of illustrations].

Lill, Bernhard. 1991. Zwischen Bombay und Benares. Mit Bahn, Bus und Taxi durchs nördliche Indien. München: Frederking und Thaler.

Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005. Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications. [Photographs by Clare Arni].

Motīcandra. 1962. Kāśī kā itihās. Vaidik kāl se arvacīn yug tak kā rājanaitik-sāṃskṛtik sarvekṣaṇ. Bambaī: Hindī Granth Ratnākar. [In Hindi].

Mukharjī, Viśvanāth. 2009. Banā rahe Banāras. (Punarnavā saṃskaraṇ). Lokoday granthamālā granthāṅk 71. Nayī Dillī: Bhāratīy Jñānapīṭh. [In Hindi].

Narain, A. K. & Gopal Lallanji (eds.). 1969. Introducing Vārāṇasī. Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University

Nevill, H. R. 1909. Benares: A Gazetteer. Vol. XXVI of the District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Allahabad: Government Press.

Newell, H. A. 1925. Benares. The Hindus' Holy City. Bombay: Caxton Printing Works.

Parker, Arthur. 1895. A Handbook of Benares. Benares: J. Lazarus & Co.

Schilder, Robert & Winand M. Callewaert. 2000. Banaras. Visions of a Living Ancient Tradition. New Delhi: Hemkunt Publishers.

Sen, Rajani Ranjan. 1912. The Holy City (Benares). Chittagong: M. R. Sen.

Seshadri, P. 1930. Benares. 3rd ed. Cawnpore: City Press.

Sherring, M. A. 1868. The Sacred City of the Hindus. An Account of Benares in Ancient and Modern Times. London: Trübner & Co. [http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/sherring1868].

Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.). 1993. Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

— 1993. Varanasi Region. An Insight Guide to Tourist Places. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

— 1993. “Vārāṇasī, a World Heritage City: The Frame and Historical Accounts”. In: Rana P. B. Singh (ed.). Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency, 297-316.

— 2009. Banaras, the Heritage City of India. Geography, History and Bibliography. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series 8. Varanasi: Indica Books.

— 2009. Banaras. Making of India's heritage City. Planet Earth & Cultural Understanding 3. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.

Singh, Rana P. B. & Pravin S. Rana. 2002. Banaras Region. A Spiritual & Cultural Guide. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series 1. Varanasi: Indica Books.

Sinha, Kunal. 2004. A Banarasi on Varanasi. New Delhi: Bluejay Books.

Srivastava, Kamal Shankar. 2007. Kāśī, the Sacred City of Lord Śiva. New Delhi: A. P. H. Publ.

Sukul, Kuber Nath. 1977. Vārāṇasī-Vaibhāv. Paṭnā: Bihār-Rāṣṭrabhāṣā-Pariṣad. [In Hindi].

Verma, T. P. & D. P. Singh & J. S. Mishra (eds.). 1986. Varanasi through the Ages. Proceedings of an All-India Seminar. Varanasi: Bhartiya Itihas Sankalan Samiti.

Vidyarthi, L. P. & B. N. Saraswati & Makhan Jha. 1979. The Sacred Complex of Kashi. A Microcosm of Indian Civilization. Delhi: Concept Publ. Co.

Varanasi City Guide. 2002. New Delhi: Eicher Goodearth Limited.

"Varanasi Displayed". 2008. Savifa. Virtual Library South Asia. South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University. http://www.savifa.uni-hd.de/thematicportals/varanasi_en.html. [Thematic portal on Varanasi].

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2. Cultural History

Bakker, Hans T. 1993. “Early Mythology Relating to Vārāṇasī”. In: Rana P. B. Singh (ed.). Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency, 21-28.

— 1998. “The Sacred Centre as the Focus of Indological Research: The History of India’s Most Holy Tīrtha, Vārāṇasī, Reconsidered”. In: Jaroslav Vacek & Jan Dvorák (eds.). Trends in Indian Studies. Proceedings of the ESIS. Prague: Karolinum, Charles University Press, 9-20.

— 2006. “The Avimuktakṣetra in Vārāṇasī: Its Origin and Early Development: Studies in the Skandapurāṇa VI”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 23-39.

Bayly, C. A. 1978. “Indian Merchants in a 'Traditional' Setting: Benares, 1780-1820”. In: A. G. Hopkins & Clive Dewey (eds.). The Imperial Impact: Studies in the Economic History of Africa and India. London: Athlone Press, 151-173.

Chandra, Premlata. 2011. “Josef Winklers Bild von Indien: Soziale und kulturelle Facetten in seinem Roman Domra”. In: Manfred Durzak (ed.). Bilder Indiens in der deutschen Literatur. Mäander. Beiträge zur deutschen Literatur 10. Bern: Peter Lang, 55-60.

Choné, Aurélie. 2011. “Die Stadt des Lichts, eine für den Fremden unsichtbare Stadt? Probleme der Wahrnehmungsperspektive von Benares in deutschsprachigen Indienreiseschriften (1880-1930)”. In: Manfred Durzak (ed.). Bilder Indiens in der deutschen Literatur. Mäander. Beiträge zur deutschen Literatur 10. Bern: Peter Lang, 41-54.

Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine. 2000. “Être un brahmane smārta aujourd'hui. Quelques points de repère à partir une enquête ethnographique à Bénarès”. Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient 87: 317-339.

Dalmia, Vasudha. 1996. “Sanskrit Scholars and Pandits of the Old School: The Benares Sanskrit College and the Constitution of Authority in the Late Nineteenth Century”. Journal of Indian Philosophy 24 (4): 321-337. [Reprinted in Dalmia, Vasudha, 2003, Orienting India. European Knowledge Formation in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. New Delhi: Three Essays Collective, 29-52].

Dalmia, Vasudha. 1997. The Nationalization of Hindu Traditions. Bhāratendu Hariśchandra and Nineteenth-Century Banaras. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

— 2001. “Vernacular Histories in Late 19th Century Banaras: Folklore, Purāṇas and the New Antiquarianism”. Indian Economic and Social History Review 38 (1): 59-79.

— 2006. “Visions of a New Banaras in the Early Twentieth Century”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 325-347.

Dar, S. L. & S. Somaskandan. 1966. History of the Banaras Hindu University. Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University.

Dodson, Michael S. 2002. “Re-Presented for the Pandits: James Ballantyne, 'Useful Knowledge,' and Sanskrit Scholarship in Benares College during the Mid-Nineteenth Century”. Modern Asian Studies 36 (2): 257-298.

— 2007. Orientalism, Empire, and National Culture. India, 1770 - 1880. Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dubey, Devi Prasad. 1985. “Vārāṇasī: A Name Study”. Archiv Orientální 53 (3). [Revised and expanded form published in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, Varanasi: Tara Book Agency, 29-36.].

Eck, Diana L. 1985. “Banaras: Cosmos and Paradise in the Hindu Imagination”. Contributions to Indian Sociology 19 (1): 41-55.

— 1993. Encountering God. A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. Boston: Beacon Press.

Engelmeier, Hanna. 2011. “'Einmal sah ich...' - Varanasi und die Poetik Josef Winklers”. In: Manfred Durzak (ed.). Bilder Indiens in der deutschen Literatur. Mäander. Beiträge zur deutschen Literatur 10. Bern: Peter Lang, 61-71.

Freitag, Sandria B. 2006. “Visualizing Cities by Modern Citizens: Banaras Compared to Jaipur and Lucknow”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 233-251.

Gaenszle, Martin (in collaboration with Nutan Dhar Sharma). 2006. “Nepali Places: Appropriations of Space in Banaras”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 303-323.

Gesler, Wilbert M. & Margaret Pierce. 2000. “Hindu Varanasi”. Geographical Review 90 (2): 222-237.

Hertel, Bradley R. & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). 1993. Living Banaras. Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Jan Yun-Hua. 1966. “The Korean Record on Vārāṇasī and Sārnāth”. Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal 4 (2): 264-272.

Köckman, Uwe. 1993. “The Role of Educational Institutions in the Awakening of Hindu Nationalism in 19th Century Vārāṇasī”. In: Rana P. B. Singh (ed.). Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency, 289-296.

Kumar, Nita. 1991. “Widows, Education and Social Change in Twentieth Century Banaras”. Economic and Political Weekly 26 (17): WS19-WS25.

Medhasananda, Swami. 2002. Varanasi at the Crossroads. A Panoramic View of Early Modern Varanasi and the Story of its Transition. Kolkata: Ramakrishna Mission Institute.

Mehrotra, R. R. 1977. Sociology of Secret Languages. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. [Chapter 2 reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, Varanasi: Tara Book Agency].

O'Hanlon, Rosalind. 2010. “Letters Home: Banaras Pandits and the Maratha Regions in Early Modern India”. Modern Asian Studies 44 (2): 201-240.

Ramaswamy, Sumathi. 2006. “Enshrining the Map of India: Cartography, Nationalism, and the Politics of Deity in Varanasi”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 165-188.

Sarasvatī, Daṇḍī Svāmī Śivānand. 1998. Kāśī gaurav (Kāśī kī pañcakrośī yātrā 'māhātmya' Kāśī kā itihās Kāśī māhātmya vartmān meṃ pracalit Vārāṇasī kī sampūrṇ yātrā). Vārāṇasī: Dharmasaṅgha. [In Hindi].

Saraswati, Baidyanath. 1975. Kashi: Myth and Reality of a Classical Cultural Tradition. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study.

Singh, Birendra Pratap. 1985. Life in Ancient Varanasi (An Account Based on Archaeological Evidence). Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan.

Singh, Ram Dular (ed.). 1986. Bengal and Varanasi. A Study of Cultural Synthesis & National Integration (Bengal's Contribution to Varanasi). Calcutta: Bibliographical Society of India.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1989. Where Cultural Symbols Meet. Literary Images of Varanasi. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

Śrīvāstav, Saritkiśorī. 1995. Vārāṇasī ke sthānnāmoṃ kā sāṃskṛtik adhyayan. Vārāṇasī: Viśvavidyālay Prakāśan. [In Hindi].

Upādhyāy, Baldev. 1994. Kāśī kī pāṇḍitya-paramparā. (Kāśīstha saṃskṛt vidvānoṃ ke jīvancarit evaṃ sāhityik avadānoṃ kā pramāṇik vivaraṇ). Vārāṇasī: Viśvavidyālay Prakāśan. [In Hindi].

Visuvalingam, Sunthar & Elizabeth Chalier-Visuvalingam. 1993. “Between Mecca and Banaras: Towards an Acculturation-Model of Muslim-Hindu Relations”. Islam and the Modern Age 24: 20-69.

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3. History

Agrawala, Vasudeva S. 1984. Sārnāth. 4th ed. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India.

— 1984. Varanasi Seals and Sealings. Varanasi: Prithivi Prakashan.

Altekar, Anant Sadashiv. 1947. Benares and Sarnath. Past and Present. Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University Press.

Archers, Mildred. 1971. “Banaras and the British”. In: Anand Krishna (ed.). Chhavi. Golden Jubilee Volume. Banaras: Bharat Kala Bhavan, 70-74, figures 179-185.

Cohn, Bernard S. 1960. “The Initial British Impact on India. A Case Study of the Benares Region”. Journal of Asian Studies 19 (4): 418-431. [Reprinted in Cohn, Bernhard S., 1988, An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays. With an introduction by Ranajit Guha, 2nd ed., New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 320-342.].

— 1962. “The British in Benares: A Nineteenth Century Colonial Society”. Comparative Studies in Society and History 4 (2): 169-199. [Reprinted in Cohn, Bernhard S., 1988, An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays. With an introduction by Ranajit Guha, 2nd ed., New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 422-462].

— 1962. “Political Systems in Eighteenth Century India: The Banaras Region”. Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (3): 312-320. [Reprinted in Cohn, Bernhard S., 1988, An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays. With an introduction by Ranajit Guha, 2nd ed., New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 483-499].

— 1987. An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays. With an introduction by Ranajit Guha. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. [See section IV. "The British in Benares" with reprints of eight essays on Banaras].

Colebrooke, Edward. 1887. “Warren Hastings in Benares, 1781”. Asiatic Quarterly Review 1 (4): 279-312.

Davis, John Francis. 1871. Vizier Ali Khan. Or, the Massacre of Benares. A Chapter in British Indian History 2ed. London: Spottiswoode & Co. [http://www.archive.org/details/vizieralikhanorm00davi].

Devi, R. 1975. “Bihar's Response to the Rising of Chait Singh of Banaras”. Journal of the Bihar Research Society 61 (1): 123-130.

Dodson, Michael S. 2007. Orientalism, Empire, and National Culture. India, 1770 - 1880. Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Freitag, Sandria B. 1989. “Introduction: The History and Political Economy of Banaras”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1-22.

Jayaswal, Vidula. 2009. Ancient Varanasi. An Archaeological Perspective. (Excavations at Aktha). New Delhi: Aryan Books International.

Köckmann, Uwe. 1980. “Revivalismus in Indien: Zur politischen Geschichte Varanasis”. Diss. Bochum: Ruhr-Universität Bochum.

Mishra, Kamala Prasad. 1975. Banaras in Transition (1738-1895). A Socio-Economic Study. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Motīcandra. 1962. Kāśī kā itihās. Vaidik kāl se arvacīn yug tak kā rājanaitik-sāṃskṛtik sarvekṣaṇ. Bambaī: Hindī Granth Ratnākar. [In Hindi].

Namasivaya, Swami. 1932. Guide to Benares. Benares: Biswanath Printing Works.

Narain, A. K. & T. N. Roy (eds.). 1976. Excavations at Rajghat (1957-58, 1960-65). Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University Press.

Narain, V. A. 1959. Jonathan Duncan and Varanasi. Calcutta: K. L. Mukhopadhyay.

Niyogi, Roma. 1959. The History of the Gāhaḍavāla Dynasty. Calcutta: Oriental Book Agency.

Paṇḍey, Banārsīlāl. 1975. Mahārāj Balvant Siṃh aur Kāśī kā atīt. Vārāṇasī: Nārāyaṇ Prakāśan. [In Hindi].

Prior, Katherine. 1993. “Making History: The State's Intervention in Urban Religious Disputes in the North-Western Provinces in the Early Nineteenth Century”. Modern Asian Studies 27 (1): 179-203.

Ray, Aniruddha. 1989. “Revolt of Vizir Ali of Oudh at Benares in 1799”. In: Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Fourty-Ninth Session. Dharwad: Karnatak University, 331-338.

Roy, T. N. 1986. “Antiquity and Material Culture of Varanasi as Revealed through Archaeological Excavations”. In: T. P. Verma & D. P. Singh & J. S. Mishra (eds.). Varanasi through the Ages. Varanasi: Bhartiya Itihas Sankalan Samiti, U. P., 24-30.

Sanyal, Suprakash. 1979. Benares and the English East India Company, 1764-1795. Calcutta: World Press.

Singh, Birendra Pratap. 1985. Life in Ancient Varanasi (An Account Based on Archaeological Evidence). Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1993. “Vārāṇasī: Demographical Profile in 1820s and its Linkage to the Past and Present”. In: Rana P. B. Singh (ed.). Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency, 279-288.

— 2005. “Growth of the City”. In: George Michell & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 22-29.

Sukul, Kuber Nath. 1974. Varanasi Down the Ages. Patna: Kameshwar Nath Sukul.

Thankappan Nair, P. 1999. James Prinsep. Life and Work. Vol. 1. Background and Benares Period. Calcutta: Firma KLM Private.

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4. Cultural Geography, Ganges

Akhtar, Jamal. 1992. “Muslims in Varanasi City. A Study in Cultural Geography”. Ph.D. thesis. Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University.

Alley, Kelly D. 1994. “Ganga and Gandagi: Interpretations of Pollution and Waste in Benaras”. Ethnology 33 (2): 127-145.

— 2000. “Idioms of Degeneracy: Assessing Gaṅgā's Purity and Pollution”. In: Lance E. Nelson (ed.). Purifying the Earthly Body of God. Religion and Ecology in Hindu India. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 297-330.

— 2002. On the Banks of the Gaṅgā. When Wastewater Meets a Sacred River. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bakker, Hans T. 1996. “Construction and Reconstruction of Sacred Space in Vārāṇasī”. Numen 43 (1): 32-55.

Darrian, Steven G. 1978. The Ganges in Myth and History. Honululu: University Press of Hawaii.

Derné, Steve. 1998. “Feeling Water: Notes on the Sensory Construction of Time and Space in Banaras”. Man in India 78: 1-7.

Doron, Assa. 2005. “Encountering the 'Other': Pilgrims, Tourists and Boatmen in the City of Varanasi”. Australian Journal of Anthropology 16 (2): 157-178.

Eck, Diana L. 1998. “The Imagined Landscape: Patterns in the Construction of Hindu Sacred Geography”. Contributions to Indian Sociology 32 (2): 165-188.

Fleming, Benjamin J. 2009. “Mapping Sacred Geography in Medieval India: The Case of the Twelve Jyotirliṅgas”. International Journal of Hindu Studies 13 (1): 51-81.

Gaenszle, Martin (in collaboration with Nutan Dhar Sharma). 2002. “Nepali Kings and Kāśī: On the Changing Significance of a Sacred Centre”. Studies in Nepali History and Society 7 (1): 1-33.

Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006. Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Ethno-Indology. Heidelberg Studies in South Asian Rituals 4. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Gengnagel, Jörg. 2000. “Visualisierung religiöser Räume. Zur Kartographie von Benares”. In: Daria Pezzoli-Olgiati & Fritz Stolz (eds.). Cartografia religiosa. Religiöse Kartographie. Carthographie religieuse. Bern: Peter Lang, 213-230.

— (with Michaela Dimmers). 2002. "Index of Kashikhanda. Compiled by Michaela Dimmers & Jörg Gengnagel". Electronic Publications of the Varanasi Research Project II. University of Heidelberg, South Asia Institute. http://www.benares.uni-hd.de/kkh-index.htm.

— 2003. “Mapping Sacred Spaces – Aspects of Cartography in 19th Century Banaras”. In: Vera Dorofeeva-Lichtmann & Michael Dickhardt (eds.). Creating and Representing Sacred Spaces. Göttinger Beiträge zur Asienforschung. Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt, 243-258.

— 2005. “Wenn Pilger vom rechten Weg abkommen: Ein Fallbeispiel aus Benares (Nordindien)”. In: Claus Ambos & Stephan Hotz & Gerald Schwedleret al. (eds.). Die Welt der Rituale. Von der Antike bis in die Neuzeit. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 121-128.

— 2011. Visualized Texts. Sacred Spaces, Spatial Texts and the Religious Cartography of Banaras. Ethno-Indology. Heidelberg Studies in South Asian Rituals 7. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Gengnagel, Jörg & Axel Michaels. 2001. "Kailāsanātha Sukula's Mirror of Kāśī (Kāśīdarpaṇa, 1876). A Historical Map of Vārāṇasī Based on the Kāśīkhaṇḍa and Related Texts". Electronic Publications of the Vārāṇasī Research Project I. University of Heidelberg, South Asia Institute. http://www.benares.uni-hd.de.

Gutschow, Niels. 1994. “Vārāṇasī/Benares: The Centre of Hinduism? A Discussion of the Meaning of "Place" and "Space"”. Erdkunde. Archiv für wissenschaftliche Geographie 48: 194-209.

— 1999. "Pilgrimage and Space. The Definatory Purpose of Pilgrimage Routes (Case Studies from Bhaktapur, Kag and Muktinath (Nepal) and Varanasi)". Contribution for the Conference Pilgrimage and Complexity, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi, 5-9 January 1999. [http://www.colorado.edu/Conferences/pilgrimage/papers99/Gutschow.html].

Gutschow, Niels & Axel Michaels. 1993. Benares. Tempel und religiöses Leben in der heiligen Stadt der Hindus. Köln: Dumont Buchverlag.

Köckmann, Uwe. 1982. Hindutradition und Stadtentwicklung. Varanasi: Analyse einer gewachsenen ungeplanten Pilgerstadt am Ganges. Bochum: Brockmeyer.

Korpela, Mari. 2006. ""I'm not like Indian Women." Reflections of Young European Women in Varanasi, India". J@rgonia: elektroninen julkaisusarja. University of Jyväskylä. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu-20095111571.

Madan, P. L. 2005. The River Ganga: A Cartographic Mystery. New Delhi: Manohar.

Markandya, Anil & Maddipati Narasimha Murty. 2000. Cleaning-Up the Ganges: A Cost Benefit Analysis of the Ganga Action Plan. New Delhi: Oxford Uniersity Press.

Mecking, Ludwig. 1913. “Benares, ein kulturgeographisches Charakterbild”. Geographische Zeitschrift 19: 20-35, 77-96.

Michaels, Axel. 2000. “Konstruktionen von Translokalität und Zentralität. Eine religiöse Karte von Benares”. In: Daria Pezzoli-Olgiati & Fritz Stolz (eds.). Cartografia religiosa. Religiöse Kartographie. Carthographie religieuse. Bern: Peter Lang, 187-216.

Narain, A. K. & T. N. Roy (eds.). 1976. Excavations at Rajghat (1957-58, 1960-65). Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University Press.

Pieper, J. 1979. “A Pilgrim's Map of Benares. Notes on Codification in Hindu Cartography”. GeoJournal 3 (2): 215-218.

Putman, John J. (photographs by Singh, Raghubir). 1971. “The Ganges, River of Faith”. National Geographic 140 (4): 445-483.

Rama Rau, Santha (photographs by Heiderer, Tony). 1986. “Banaras: India's City of Light”. National Geographic 169 (2): 214-251.

Śaṃkar, Hari. 1996. Kāśī ke ghāṭ: Kalātmak evaṃ sāṃskritik adhyayan. Vārāṇasī: Viśvavidyālay Prakāśan [In Hindi].

Saraswati, Baidyanath. 1985. “Kashi Pilgrimage – The End of an Endless Journey”. In: Makhan Jha (ed.). Dimensions of Pilgrimage. An Anthropological Appraisal. (Based on the Transactions of a World Symposium on Pilgrimage). New Delhi: Inter-India Publications, 91-104.

Singh, Onkar & V. K. Kumra & J. Singh. 1988. India's Urban Environment. Pollution, Perception and Management. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

Singh, R. L. 1955. Banaras. A Study in Urban Geography. Banaras: Nand Kishore & Sons.

Singh, R. L. & Rana P. B. Singh. 1980. “Cognizing Urban Landscape of Varanasi: A Note on Cultural Synthesis”. National Geographical Journal of India 26 (3-4): 113-123.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1987. “The Pilgrimage Maṇḍala of Vārāṇasī/Kāśī: A Study in Sacred Geography”. National Geographical Journal of India 33: 493-524.

— 1987. “Toward Myth, Cosmos, Space and Maṇḍala in India: A Search in the Geography of Belief Systems”. National Geographical Journal of India 33 (3): 305-322.

— 1990. “Literary Images, Cultural Symbols and Intimate Sensing. The Gaṅgā River in Vārāṇasī”. National Geographical Journal of India 36 (1-2): 117-128.

— 1991. “Pañcakrośī Yātrā, Vārāṇasī: Sacred Journey, Ecology of Place and Faithscape”. National Geographical Journal of India 37 (1-2): 49-98.

— 1993. “The Gaṅgā Ghāṭs, Vārāṇasī: The Riverfront Landscape”. In: Rana P. B. Singh (ed.). Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

— 1994. “The Sacred Geometry of India's Holy City, Varanasi: Kashi as Cosmogram ”. National Geographical Journal of India 40 (1-2): 189-216.

— 1998. “Sacred Journey and Faithscape: An Experience of the Panchakroshi Pilgrimage, Varanasi (India)”. The Pennsylvania Geographer 36 (1): 55-91.

— 2002. Towards the Pilgrimage Archetype. The Pañcakrośī Yātrā of Banāras. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series 3. Varanasi: Indica Books.

Singh, Rana P. B. & Masaaki Fukunaga. 2000. “Perfoming Pilgrimage and Pilgrimage-Tourism: An Experience of the Pañcakroshī Yātrā, Varanasi”. In: D. P. Dubey (ed.). Pilgrimage Studies. The Power of Sacred Places. Pilgrimage Studies 5. Allahabad: Society of Pilgrimage Studies, 183-205.

Singh, Ravi S. & Rana P. B. Singh. 2006. “Goddesses in Kāśī (Vārāṇasī): Spatial Patterns and Symbolic Orders”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 41-68.

Tagare, G. V. 1991. “Pilgrimages at Kāśī: Past and Present”. Journal of the Oriental Institute 41: 13-16.

Varady, Robert G. 1989. “Land Use and Environmental Change in the Gangetic Plain: Nineteenth-Century Human Activity in the Banaras Region”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 229-245.

Visuvalingam, Sunthar & Elizabeth Chalier-Visuvalingam. 2006. “Bhairava in Banaras: Negotiating Sacred Space and Religious Identity”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 95-128.

Wilke, Annette. 2006. “The Banarsī Navadurgā Cycle and its Spatial Orientation”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 69-94.

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5. Arts, Architecture

Agrawala, Prithvi K. 1977. “Some Varanasi Images of Gaṇapati and their Iconographic Problem”. Artibus Asiae 39 (2): 139-155.

Agrawala, Vasudeva S. 1984. Varanasi Seals and Sealings. Varanasi: Prithivi Prakashan.

Archers, William G. 1971. “Banaras and British Art”. In: Anand Krishna (ed.). Chhavi. Golden Jubilee Volume. Banaras: Bharat Kala Bhavan, 43-47, figures 123-132.

Banerji, Adris. 1945. “Some Sculptures from Rajghat, Benares”. Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute 3 (1): 1-9.

Bautze, Joachim K. 2006. “Examples of Unlicensed Copies and Versions of Views from Benares: Their Authorship and Identification”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 213-232.

Couté, Pierre-Daniel & Jean-Michel Léger. 1989. Bénarès. Un Voyage d'architecture. Paris: Edition Créaphis.

Dwivedi, Prem Shankar. 1993. Durga (Theme in Varanasi Wall Paintings). Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers.

— 2005. “The Mahamaya Temple Murals”. In: George Michell & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 98-105.

Gardner, Robert & Ákos Östör. 2001. Making Forest of Bliss. Intention, Circumstance, and Chance in Nonfiction Film. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Film Archive. [1 DVD, 90 min., engl., documentary, USA 1986].

Giri, Kamal & Maruti Nandan Tiwari. 1998. “A Rare Pancayatana Sivalinga from Varanasi”. In: Chitta Ranjan Prasad Sinha (ed.). Studies in Indian Art (Dr. Bhagwant Sahai Felicitation Volume). New Delhi: Ramanand Vidya Bhawan, 125-128.

Gutschow, Niels. 2005. “The Panchakroshi Temple”. In: George Michell & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 92-97.

— 2006. “Panoramas of Banaras”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 191-211.

Hegewald, Julia A. B. 2005. “Ghats and Riverside Palaces”. In: George Michell & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 67-77.

Horne, Charles. 1873. “Notes on the Age of the Ruins Chiefly Situated at Banáras and Jaunpúr”. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 42 (1): 160-164.

Joshi, N. P. 1990. “Varanasi-Silapatts, A Unique Depiction of Varanasi in Sculpture”. In: Chitta Ranjan Prasad Sinha (ed.). Archaeology and Art (Krishna Deva Felicitation Volume). Vol. 2. Delhi: Ramanand Vidya Bhawan, 390-394.

— 1992. “Deva-Pattas: A Less Known Chapter of Medieval Hindu Iconography”. In: T.S. Maxwell (ed.). Eastern Approaches. Essays on Asian Art and Archaeology. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 133-140.

Kittoe, M. 1852. “Memo on Some Ancient Gold Coins Found near Benares, in 1851, and Submitted by the Government of India for the Inspection of the Members of the Asiatic Society”. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 21: 390-400.

Kohili, Sujata. 1986. “Varanasi: A Study in Landscape Architecture. (With Special Reference to Ghats)”. Unpublished M. Arch. thesis in landscape architecture. New Delhi: School of Planning and Architecture.

Krishna, Rai Anand. 2003. Banaras in the early 19th Century. Riverfront Panorama. Panorama of Banaras Viewed from across the Ganges by a 'Native Artist'. Varanasi: Indica Books.

Kumar, Nita. 1987. “The Mazars of Banaras: A New Perspective on the City's Sacred Geography”. National Geographical Journal of India 33 (3): 263-267.

Lari, Tarannum Fatma. 2010. Textiles of Banaras. Yesterday and Today. Varanasi: Indica Books.

Michell, George. 2005. “Temple Styles”. In: George Michell & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications 78-91.

Misra, R. N. 1984. “Banaras Yakṣa Legends and the Rajghat Image”. Bhāratī. Bulletin of the College of Indology 15: 132-136.

Mookerjee, Adit (ed.). 1966. Banaras Brocades: Essays by Rai Ananda Krishna and Vijay Krishna. New Delhi: Crafts Museum.

Prinsep, James. 1833. Benares Illustrated in a Series of Drawings. Calcutta: Smith, Elder & Co.

Roach, David. 1972. “The Banaras Bāj - The Tablā Tradition of a North Indian City”. Asian Music 3 (2): 29-41.

Rötzer, Klaus. 2005. “Mosques and Tombs”. In: George Michell & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications 50-65.

Rötzer, Klaus & Khandu Deokar. 1994. “Mughal Gardens in Benaras and its Neighbourhood in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries”. In: Françoise "Nalini" Delvoye (ed.). Confluence of Cultures. French Contributions to Indo-Persian Studies. New Delhi: Manohar, 131-169.

Sahni, Daya Ram. 1914. Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Sārnāth. Calcutta: Government Printing.

— 1924. “Manikarṇikā Ghāṭ (Benaras) Stone Inscription of Vīreśvara”. Indian Antiquary 53: 209-211.

Sherring, M. A. & Charles Horne. 1865. “Description of the Buddhist Ruins at Bakariya Kund, Benares”. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 34 (1): 1-13.

— 1866. “Description of Ancient Remains of Buddhist Monasteries and Temples, and of Other Buildings, Recently Discovered in Benares and its Vicinity”. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 35 (1): 61-87.

Smith, Vincent A. 1909. “Identification of the Aśoka Pillar N. E. of Benares City described by Hiuen Tsang”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 63: 337-345.

Sukul, Kuber Nath. 1970. “Original Sites of Some Important Temples of Varanasi”. Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute 26 (1-3): 717-724.

Venis, Arthur. 1894. “Benares Copper-Plate Grants of Govindachandra of Kanauj”. Epigraphia indica 2: 358-363.

Verma, T. P. 1984. “The Temples of Banaras”. Bhāratī. Bulletin of the College of Indology 15: 194-205.

Widdess, Richard. 1994. “Festivals of Dhrupad in Northern India: New Contexts for an Ancient Art”. British Journal of Ethnomusicology 3: 89-109.

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6. Religion, Ritual

Bakker, Hans T. 2009. “Rāma Devotion in a Śaiva Holy Place. The Case of Vārāṇasī”. In: Heidi Rika Maria Pauwels (ed.). Patronage and Popularisation, Pilgrimage and Procession. Channels of Transcultural Translation and Transmission in Early Modern South Asia. Papers in Honor of Monika Horstmann. Studies in Oriental Religions 58. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 67-80.

Bauer, Marcel & Henning Christoph. 1980. Der Tod in Benares. Indiens Kirche der Armen. Trier: Spee-Verlag.

Bisschop, Peter Christiaan. 2006. Early Śaivism and the Skandapurāṇa. Sects and Centres. Groningen Oriental Studies 21. Groningen: Forsten.

Chalier-Visuvalingam, Elizabeth. 1986. “Bhairava: Kotwāl of Vārāṇasī”. In: T. P. Verma & D. P. Singh & J. S. Mishra (eds.). Varanasi through the Ages. Varanasi: Bhartiya Itihas Sankalan Samiti, U. P., 241-260.

— 1989. “Bhairava's Royal Brahmanicide: The Problem of the Mahābrāhmaṇa”. In: Alf Hiltebeitel (ed.). Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees. Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 157-229.

— (With the collaboration of Sunthar Visuvalingam). 1996. “Bhairava and the Goddess. Tradition, Gender and Transgression”. In: Axel Michaels & Cornelia Vogelsanger & Annette Wilke (eds.). Wild Goddesses in India and Nepal. Proceedings of an International Symposium Berne and Zurich, November 1994. Bern: Peter Lang, 253-302.

— 2003. Bhairava: terreur et protection. Mythes, rites et fêtes à Bénarès et à Katmandou. Dieux, Hommes et Religions 4. Bruxelles, Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang.

Claveyrolas, Mathieu. 2003. Quand le temple prend vie. Atmosphère et dévotion à Bénarès. Monde indien, sciences sociales, 15e-20e siècle. Paris: CNRS Éditions.

— 2010. “Construire un espace à part. Circulations rituelles et territoires sacrés à Bénarès”. In: Véronique Dupont & Frédéric Landy (eds.). Circulation et territoire dans le monde indien contemporain. Puru?artha 28. Paris: Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales, 41-71.

Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine. 1984. “Condition féminine et renoncement au monde dans l'hindouisme. Les communautés monastiques de femmes à Benares”. Bulletin de l'Ecole Francaise d'Extrême Orient 73: 197-222.

— 1988. “Outside the Norms: Women Ascetics in Hindu Society”. Economic and Political Weekly 23 (18): WS34-WS36.

Coccari, Diane M. 1989. “The Bir Babas of Banaras and the Deified Dead”. In: Alf Hiltebeitel (ed.). Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees. Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism. Albany: State University of New York Press, 251-269.

— 1989. “Protection and Identity: Banaras's Bīr Babas as Neighbourhood Guardian Deities”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 130-146.

Corre, L. 1989. “Akhara and Naubatkhana”. In: Pierre-Daniel Couté & Jean-Michel Léger (eds.). Bénarès. Un Voyage d'architecture. Paris: Edition Créaphis, 141-149.

Elder, Joseph W. 1977. An Indian Pilgrimage: Kashi. Film Guide.

Gengnagel, Jörg. 2005. “Kāśīkhaṇḍokta: On Texts and Processions in Vārāṇasī”. In: Jörg Gengnagel & Ute Hüsken & Srilata Raman (eds.). Words and Deeds. Hindu and Buddhist Rituals in South Asia. Ethno-Indology 1. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 65-89.

— 2006. “Maps and Processions in Banaras: The Debate Concerning the Pañcakrośīyātrā”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 145-163.

Giri, Kapildev. 1973. “Vārāṇasī aur jaindharm”. Prajñā 18 (2): 86-92. [In Hindi].

Gutschow, Niels (photographs Stanislaw Klimek). 2006. Shiva's Places - Shiva's Orte. Lingas and Rituals in Benares. Schüttorf: Peter Hess. [Includes DVD].

Hein, Norvin. 1959. “The Rām Līlā”. In: Milton B. Singer (ed.). Traditional India. Structure and Change. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 73-98.

Herbert, Jean. 1957. Banaras. A Guide to Panch-Kroshi Yatra. Calcutta: Saturday Mail Publications.

Hess, Linda. 1983. “Rām Līlā: The Audience Experience”. In: Monika Thiel-Horstmann (ed.). Bhakti in Current Research. Berlin: Reimer, 171-194.

Irwin, John. 1983. “The Lāṭ Bhairo at Benares (Vārāṇasī): Another Pre-Aśokan Monument?”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 133 (3): 321-352.

Justice, Christopher. 1997. Dying the Good Death. The Pilgrimage to Die in India's Holy City. New York: State University of New York Press.

Kapera, Constance. 1966. The Worship of Kali in Varanasi (Banaras). An Inquiry. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Kapur, Anuradha. 1990. Actors, Pilgrims, Kings and Gods. The Ramlila at Ramnagar. Calcutta: Seagull Books.

— 1991. “Rājā and Prajā: Presentational Conventions in the Rāmlīlā at Ramnagar”. In: Monika Thiel-Horstmann (ed.). Rāmāyaṇa and Rāmāyaṇas. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 153-168.

Katz, Marc J. 1993. The Children of Assi. The Transference of Religious Traditions and Communal Inclusion in Banaras. Göteborg: Department of Religious Studies, University of Göteborg.

Kaushik, Meena. 1976. “The Symbolic Representation of Death”. Contributions to Indian Sociology 10 (2): 265-292. [Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, Varanasi, Tara Book Agency, 123-139].

Keul, István. 1998. “Ein Gott macht Karriere. Hanumanverehrung in Benares”. Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 6: 23-45.

— 2002. Hanumān, der Gott in Affengestalt. Entwicklung und Erscheinungsformen seiner Verehrung. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.

Kumar, Nita. 1986. “Open Space and Free Time: Pleasure for the People of Banaras”. Contributions to Indian Sociology 20 (1): 41-60.

— 1986. “Patronage, Identity and Cultural Change: Five Melas of Banaras”. In: T. P. Verma & D. P. Singh & J. S. Mishra (eds.). Varanasi through the Ages. Varanasi: Bhartiya Itihas Sankalan Samiti, U. P., 159-170. [Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, Varanasi, Tara Book Agency, 225-233].

Lutgendorf, Philip. 1989. “Rām's Story in Shiva's City: Public Arenas and Private Patronage”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 34-61.

— 1989. “The View from the Ghats: Traditional Exegesis of a Hindu Epic”. Journal of Asian Studies 48 (2): 272-288.

— 1991. The Life of a Text. Performing the Rāmacaritmānas of Tulsidas. Berkeley: University of California Press. [http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft796nb4pk&brand=ucpress].

Malville, John M. 1985. “Sun Worship in Contemporary India”. Man in India 63 (3): 207-233.

Michaels, Axel. 2003. “Tīrtha – Orte der Transzendenz in hinduistischen Texten, Ritualen und Karten”. In: Gerhard Oberhammer & Marcus Schmücker (eds.). Mythisierung der Transzendenz als Entwurf ihrer Erfahrung. Arbeitsdokumentation eines Symposiums. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 349-379.

— 2006. “Mapping the Religious and Religious Maps: Aspects of Transcendence and Translocality in Two Maps of Varanasi”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 131-143.

Myrvold, Kristina. 2008. "Inside the Guru's Gate. Ritual Uses of Texts among the Sikhs in Varanasi". Lund: Department of History and Anthropology of Religions, Lund University. http://www.anpere.net/2008/3.pdf.

Parkhil, Thomas. 1993. “What's Taking Place: Neighborhood Ramlilas in Banaras”. In: Bradley R. Hertel & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). Living Banaras. Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. Albany: State University of New York Press, 127-144.

Parry, Jonathan P. 1980. “Ghost, Greed and Sin: The Occupational Identity of the Benares Funeral Priests”. Man: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 15 (1): 88-111. [Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, Varanasi, Tara Book Agency, 179-196].

— 1981. “Death and Cosmogony in Kashi”. Contributions to Indian Sociology 15 (1-2): 337-365. [Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, Varanasi, Tara Book Agency, 103-121].

— 1982. “Sacrificial Death and the Necrophagous Ascetic”. In: Maurice Bloch & Jonathan Parry (eds.). Death and the Regeneration of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 74-110.

— 1985. “The Aghori Ascetics of Benares”. In: Richard Burghart & Audrey Cantlie (eds.). Indian Religion. London/New York: Curzon Press, 51-78.

— 1994. Death in Banaras. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [See: Laidlaw, James, 1996, "The Uses and Abuses of Theology: Comments on Jonathan Parry's Death in Banaras", Review Article, South Asia Research 16, 31-44].

Pathak, R. K. & Cynthia Ann Humes. 1993. “Lolark Kund: Sun and Shiva Worship in the City of Light”. In: Bradley R. Hertel & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). Living Banaras. Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. Albany: State University of New York Press, 205-244.

Pintchman, Tracy. 2005. Guests at God's Wedding. Celebrating Kartik among the Women of Benares. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Pugh, Judy F. 1983. “Astrological Counseling in Contemporary India”. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 7 (3): 279-299.

— 1983. “Into the Almanac: Time, Meaning, and Action in North Indian Society”. Contributions to Indian Sociology 17 (1): 27-49.

— 1984. “Concepts of Person and Situation in North Indian Counseling”. Contribution to Asian Studies 18: 85-105.

Saraswati, Baidyanath. 1985. “The Kashivasi Widows”. Man in India 65 (2): 107-120.

Sawyer, Dana W. 1993. “The Monastic Structure of Banarasi Dandi Sadhus”. In: Bradley R. Hertel & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). Living Banaras. Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. Albany: State University of New York Press, 159-180.

Sax, William S. 1993. “The Rāmnagar Rāmlīlā: Text, Performance, Pilgrimage”. In: Rana P. B. Singh (ed.). Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency, 257-273.

Schechner, Richard. 1982. “Ramlila of Ramnagar and America's Oberammergau: Two Celebratory Ritual Dramas”. In: Victor Turner (ed.). Celebration. Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 89-106.

— 1982. “Ramlila of Ramnagar: An Introduction”. Quarterly Journal of the National Centre for the Performing Arts 11 (3-4): 66-98.

— 1983. “Ramlila of Ramnagar: An Introduction”. In: Performative Circumstances. From the Avant Garde to Ramlila. Calcutta: Seagull Books, 238-288.

— 1985. “Ramlila of Ramnagar”. In: Between Theater & Anthropology. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 151-211.

— 1993. “Crossing the Water: Pilgrimage, Movement, and Environmental Scenography of the Ramlila of Ramnagar ”. In: Bradley R. Hertel & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). Living Banaras. Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. Albany: State University of New York Press, 159-180.

— 1993. “Striding Through the Cosmos: Movement, Belief, Politics and Place in the Ramlila of Ramnagar”. In: The Future of Ritual. Writings on Culture and Performance. London/New York: Routledge, 131-183.

Schechner, Richard & Linda Hess. 1977. “The Ramlila of Ramnagar (India)”. The Drama Review 21 (3): 51-82.

Sharma, Ramesh Chandra (ed.). 2006. Jaina Contribution to Varanasi. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.

— (ed.). 2006. Śākta Contribution to Varanasi. Varanasi: Jñāna-Prahāva, Centre for Cultural Studies and Research.

— (ed.). 2006. Vaiṣṇava Contribution to Varanasi. Varanasi: Jnana-Pravaha, Centre for Cultural Studies and Research.

Shulman, David. 1998. “Ambivalence and Longing: Vyāsa's Curse on Kāśī”. In: Benjamin Z. Kedar & R. J. Zwi Werblowsky (eds.). Sacred Space. Shrine, City, Land. New York: New York University Press, 192-214.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1987. “The Pilgrimage Maṇḍala of Vārāṇasī/Kāśī: A Study in Sacred Geography”. National Geographical Journal of India 33: 493-524.

— 1987. “Toward Myth, Cosmos, Space and Maṇḍala in India: A Search in the Geography of Belief Systems”. National Geographical Journal of India 33 (3): 305-322.

— 1988. “The Image of Varanasi: Sacrality and Perceptual World”. National Geographical Journal of India 34 (1): 1-32.

— 1990. “Time and Hindu Ritual in Vārāṇasī. A Study of Sacrality and Cycles”. In: L. Gopal & D. P. Dubey (eds.). Pilgrimage Studies: Text and Context. Allahabad, 67-72.

Sinha, Surajit & Baidyanath Saraswati. 1978. Ascetics of Kashi. An Anthropological Exploration. Varanasi: N. K. Bose Memorial Foundation.

Slawek, Stephen M. 1988. “Popular Kīrtan in Benares: Some 'Great' Aspects of a Little Tradition”. Ethnomusicology 32 (2): 77-92.

Wadley, Susan S. 1980. “Śītalā: The Cool One”. Asian Folklore Studies 39: 33-62.

Wilke, Annette. 1993. “Durga-Puja in Benares”. Unipress 78: 19-25.

Zeiler, Xenia. 2011. “Die Göttin Dhumavati. Vom tantrischen Ursprung zur Gottheit eines Stadtviertels in Benares”. Diss.: Universität Heidelberg. [http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/volltexte/2011/12081].

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7. Economics and Society

Alter, Joseph S. 1992. The Wrestler's Body. Identity and Ideology in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press. [http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft6n39p104&brand=ucpress].

— 1993. “Hanuman and the Moral Physique of the Banarasi Wrestler”. In: Bradley R. Hertel & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). Living Banaras: Hindu Religion in Cultural Context. Albany: State University of New York Press, 127-144.

Arnold, David. 1989. “The Ecology and Cosmology of Disease in the Banaras Region”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 246-267.

Bayly, C. A. 1983. Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars. North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carnegy, Patrick. 1876. “The Bhars of Audh and Banáras”. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 45 (1): 297-308.

Casolari, Marzia. 2002. “Role of Benares in Constructing Political Hindu Identity”. Economic and Political Weekly 37 (15): 1413-1420.

Cohen, Lawrence. 1995. “Toward an Anthropology of Senility: Anger, Weakness and Alzheimer's in Banaras, India”. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 9 (3): 314-334.

— 1998. No Aging in India. Alzheimer's, the Bad Family, and Other Modern Things. Berkeley: University of California Press. [http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft658007dm&brand=ucpress].

Derné, Steve. 1995. Culture in Action. Family Life, Emotion, and Male Dominance in Banaras, India. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Doron, Assa. 2009. Caste, Occupation, and Politics on the Ganges. Passages of Resistance. Anthropology and Cultural History in Asia and the Indo-Pacific. Farnham: Ashgate.

— 2011. “The Intoxicated Poor: Alcohol, Morality and Power and the Boatman of Banaras”. In: Assa Doron (ed.). Health, Culture and Religion in South Asia. Critical Perspectives. South Asian History and Culture. London: Routledge, 90-108.

Freitag, Sandria B. 2005. “Power and Patronage: Banaras in the 18th and 19th Centuries”. In: George Michell & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). Banaras. The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publications, 31-41.

Heitler, Richard. 1972. “The Varanasi House Tax Hartal of 1810-11”. Indian Economic and Social History Review 9 (3): 239-257.

Kaushik, Meena. 1979. “Religion and Social Structure. A Case Study of the Doms of Banaras”. Ph.D. thesis. University of Delhi.

Kennedy, James. 1884. Life and Work in Benares and Kumaon, 1839-1877. London: T. Fischer Unwin. [New York 1885].

Kumar, Nita. 1988. The Artisans of Banaras. Popular Culture and Identity, 1860-1986. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press.

— 1989. “Work and Leisure in the Formation of Identity: Muslim Weavers in a Hindu City”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 147-170.

— 1992. Friends, Brothers and Informants. Fieldwork Memoirs of Banaras. Berkeley: University of California Press. [http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft6x0nb4g3&brand=ucpress].

— 2000. Lessons from Schools. The History of Education in Banaras. New Delhi: Sage.

— 2006. “The Space of the Child: The Nation, the Neighbourhood, and the Home”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 255-278.

LaDousa, Chaise. 2007. “Of Nation and State: Language, School, and the Reproduction of Disparity in a North Indian City”. Anthropological Quarterly 80 (4): 925-959.

Lodrick, Deryck O. 1979. “On Religion and Milk Bovines in an Urban Indian Setting”. Current Anthropology 20 (1): 241-242. [Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, Varanasi, Tara Book Agency, 275-278].

Majumdar, Bandana. 2009. Widows, Renunciation and Social-Self. A Study of Bengali Widows in Varanasi. Delhi: Manak Publications.

Malik, Dipak. 1996. “Three Riots in Varanasi: 1989-1990, 1991 and 1992”. In: Praful Bidwai & Harbans Mukhia & Achin Vanaik (eds.). Religion, Religiosity and Communalism New Delhi: Manohar, 157-166.

Moog, Robert S. 1991. “Conflict and Compromise: The Politics of Lok Adalats in Varanasi District”. Law & Society Review 25 (3): 545-570.

Pandey, Gyanendra. 1990. “The Colonial Construction of 'Communalism': British Writings on Banaras in the Nineteenth Century”. In: Veena Das (ed.). Mirrors of Violence. Communities, Riots and Survivors in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 94-134.

Pandey, Jyotsna. 2010. Rural-Urban Fringe in Indian Cities. A Case Study of Varanasi. New Delhi: Radha Publications.

Pandey, Rajendra Bihari. 1960. “Studies in the History of Kāśī: Economic Life”. Journal of Oriental Research, Madras 29: 1-34.

Prinsep, James. 1832. “Census of the population of the city of Benares”. Asiatic Researches 17: 470-498.

Saxena, Kavita. 1995. Life and Status of Professional Women. A Study of Varanasi. Delhi: Radiant Publication.

Schütte, Stefan. 2003. Soziale Netzwerke als räumliche Orientierungssysteme. Konstruktion von Raum und Lokalität der Wäscher von Banāras. Studien zur geographischen Entwicklungsforschung 23. Saarbrücken: Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik.

— 2006. “The Social Landscape of the Washermen in Banaras”. In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). Visualizing Space in Banaras. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 279-301.

Searle-Chatterjee, Mary. 1979. “The Polluted Identity of Work: A Study of Benares Sweepers”. In: Sandra Wallmann (ed.). Social Anthropology of Work. London Academic Press, 269-286.

— 1981. Reversible Sex Roles. The Special Case of Benares Sweepers. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Shastri, Jagdishlal. [1963]. Bhojaprabandha of Ballaladeva of Banaras. 2nd ed. Patna: Motilal Banarsidass.

Shastri, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad. 1912. “Dakshini Pandits at Benares”. Indian Antiquary 41 (1): 7-13.

Sherring, M. A. 1872. Hindu Tribes and Castes as Represented in Benares. [Reprint Cosmo Publ., Delhi in 1974].

— 1897. “Index to Hindu Tribes and Castes as Represented in Benares”. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 65 (3): 1-112.

Showeb, M. 1994. Silk Handloom Industry of Varanasi. A Study of Socio-Economic Problems of Weavers. Varanasi: Ganga Kaveri Publ. House.

Singh, S. N. & R. C. Yadava & T. Bhaduri. 1970. “A Demographic Survey of Varanasi (Rural) 1969-70”. Prajñā 16 (1): 176-189.

Singha, Radhika. 1998. “Civil Authority and Due Process: Colonial Criminal Justice in the Banaras Zaminadari, 1781-99”. In: Michael. R. Anderson & Sumit Guha (eds.). Changing Concepts of Rights and Justice in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 30-81.

Srivastava, Harish Chandra. 1974. The Genesis of Campus Violence in Banaras Hindu University Varanasi. Allahabad: Indian International Publications.

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8. Banaras in Sanskrit Literature

On Sanskrit Literature and Traditional Scholarship

Bäumer, Bettina. 2001. “Tantric Pandits in Varanasi: A Brief Survey”. In: Axel Michaels (ed.). The Pandit. Traditional Scholarship in India. Festschrift Parameswara Aithal. New Delhi: Manohar, 99-103.

Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine. 2000. “Être un brahmane smārta aujourd'hui. Quelques points de repère à partir une enquête ethnographique à Bénarès”. Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient 87: 317-339.

Dalmia, Vasudha. 1996. “Sanskrit Scholars and Pandits of the Old School: The Benares Sanskrit College and the Constitution of Authority in the Late Nineteenth Century”. Journal of Indian Philosophy 24 (4): 321-337. [Reprinted in Dalmia, Vasudha, 2003, Orienting India. European Knowledge Formation in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. New Delhi: Three Essays Collective, 29-52].

Dar, S. L. 1995. “Contribution of Kashmiri Pandits in the Birth and Growth of Benaras Hindu University”. In: S. Bhatt (ed.). Kashmiri Pandits. A Cultural Heritage. New Delhi: Lancers Books, 285-290.

Dodson, Michael S. 2002. “Re-Presented for the Pandits: James Ballantyne, 'Useful Knowledge,' and Sanskrit Scholarship in Benares College during the Mid-Nineteenth Century”. Modern Asian Studies 36 (2): 257-298.

Eck, Diana L. 1980. “A Survey of Sanskrit Sources for the Study of Vārāṇasī”. Purāṇa 22: 81-101. [Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. (ed.), 1993, Banāras (Vārāṇasī): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Varanasi, Tara Book Agency, 9-19].

Howard, Wayne. 1986. Veda Recitation in Vārāṇasī. Delhi Motilal Banarsidass.

Jolly, Julius. 1883. “Gründung einer Handschriftenbibliothek in Benares”. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 37: 282-284.

Kane, Pandurang Vaman. 1973. History of Dharmaśāstra. (Ancient and Mediaeval, Religious and Civil Law). Vol. 4. 2nd ed. Poona Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. [Chapter XIII].

Kavirāj, Gopīnāth. 1965. Kāśī kī sārasvat sādhanā. Paṭnā: Bihār-Rāṣṭrabhāṣā-Pariṣad. [In Hindi].

King, Christopher R. 1974. “The Nagari Pracharini Sabha (Society for the Promotion of the Nagari Script and Language) of Benares, 1893-1914: A Study in the Social and Political History of the Hindi Language”. Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin.

Lütt, Jürgen. 1976. “The Movement for the Foundation of the Benares Hindu University”. In: Cultural Department of the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany (ed.). German Scholars on India Vol. 2. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, 160-195.

Minkowski, Christopher. 2002. “Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara's Mantrakāśīkhaṇḍa”. Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (2): 329-344.

Nicholls, George. 1907. History of the Sanskrit College. Allahabad: United Province Government Press.

— 2005. Sketch of the Rise and Progress of the Benaras Pathshala. With a Supplement Bringing the Story down to 1906. University bi-centenary series 9. Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University.

O'Hanlon, Rosalind. 2010. “Letters Home: Banaras Pandits and the Maratha Regions in Early Modern India”. Modern Asian Studies 44 (2): 201-240.

Sarma, K. V. 1971. “The Manuscripts Collection of the Jaḍe Family of Varanasi and the Literary Output of the Jaḍe Authors”. Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal 9 (2): 347-356.

Sen, S. N. 1944. “Sanskrit College”. Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute 1 (3): 315-325.

Shastri, Mahamahopadhyaya Haraprasad. 1912. “Dakshini Pandits at Benares”. Indian Antiquary 41 (1): 7-13.

Upādhyāy, Baldev. 1994. Kāśī kī pāṇḍitya-paramparā. (Kāśīstha saṃskṛt vidvānoṃ ke jīvancarit evaṃ sāhityik avadānoṃ kā pramāṇik vivaraṇ). Vārāṇasī: Viśvavidyālay Prakāśan. [In Hindi].

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Gaṅgālaharī
Gaṅgālaharī. Umesha Mishra Gauda (ed.). Vārāṇasī 1990.
Gaṅgā Laharī of Jagannātha. Vārāṇasī: Thakur Prasad & Sons, 1982.

Kāśīkedāramāhātmyam, sāhityarañjanapaṇḍitaśrīvijayānandatripāṭhiviracitabhāṣānuvādayutam. Kṛṣṇa Panta Sāhityācārya (ed.). Kāśī: Acyutagranthamālākāryālaya. (Acyutagranthamālāḥ (kh) vibhāge dvitīyaṃ puṣpam). [Edition without date, preface of editor gives: “caitra kṛṣṇa 9 saṃ. 1988”, Eck has 1920].

Kāśīkhaṇḍa
Kāśīkhaṇḍam śrīrāmānandayativaraviracitaṭīkāsahitaṃ. Bhagīrathātmajahariprasāda-śarmaṇā gaṇapatakṛṣṇājī mudrāyantrālaye mudritam. Aṃkanasamāptiś ca aṃka-dvigajeṃdumite 1829 śālivāhanaśake [AD 1908] śukraśuklapaṃcamyāṃ samajani. Kāśīkhaṇḍabhāṣā. Śrī Tripāṭhī Nārāyaṇapati Śarmā (ed.). Bombay: Śrī Veṅkateśvara Steam Press, 1908.
Kashi Khand with Poorvardha and Uttarardha, Skanda Puranam Vol. IV. Shrimanmaharshi Krishna Dwaipayan Vedavyas (ed.). (Gurumandal Series No. XX). Calcutta, 1961. (Skanda Puranam Vol. IV).
Kāśīkhaṇḍaḥ Maharṣivyāsapraṇitaḥ Rāmānandapraṇitayā “Rāmānandī” vyākhyayā; Nārāyaṇapatitripāṭhīpraṇitayā “Nārāyaṇī”. Karuṇāpati Tripāṭhī (ed.). 4 vols. Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 1991; 1992; 1996; 1998.
Kāśī Khaṇḍa, Section I: Pūrvārdha, Section II: Uttarārdha. In: The Skanda-Purāṇa. Translated and Annotated by G. V. Tagare, Part X, XI, Book IV. (Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology Series 58, 59). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1996; 1997.

Kāśīmāhātmya (from the Pātāla Khaṇḍa of the Padma Purāṇa). Nawal Kishore Press, 1939.

Kāśīmokṣanirṇaya by Sureśvara. A. D. Uppadhyaya (ed.). Gorakhpur: Sri Gaurishankar Ganerivala, 1931.

Kāśīmṛtimokṣavicāra by Sureśvara. Gopinath Kaviraj (ed.). (The Prince of Wales Saraswati Bhavan Text No.67). Allahabad: Government Printing, 1936.

Kāśīpañcakrośīmāhātmya. Banāras: Victoria Press, 1906.

Kāśīrahasya
Kāśīrahasyam, Brahmavaivartapurāṇapariśiṣṭam saṭīkam kāśīrahasyam. Rādhākṛṣṇa Mor (ed.). (Gurumaṇḍalagranthamālā No. 14, Vol. 3). Calcutta, 1957.
Kāśīrahasya. Jagadīśa Nārāyaṇa Dūbe (ed.). Vārāṇasī: Ādarś Prakāśan Mandir, 1984.

Kāśīstithicandrikā of Śrī Sadāśiva. Śrī Ramāpada Cakravartī (ed.). (Sarasvatībhavana-Granthamālā 152). Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 2005.

Kāśītattvabhāskara. Munshi Haribhajan Lal (ed.). Banāras: Hitchintak Press, 1917.

Kāśīvaibhavasamuccayaḥ. [Mantrakāśīkhaṇḍaḥ, Kāśīyātrāvidhiś Catuḥṣaṣṭiyātrāvidhiś ca, Kāśīmāhātmyaṃ, Kāśīmāhātmyakaumudī, Mokṣalakṣmīvilāsaḥ, Muktikṣetra¬pra¬kāśaḥ, Vārāṇasīdarpanaṃ ca]. Śrī Ramāpada Cakravartī (ed.). (Sarasvatībhavana-Granthamālā 153). Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 2005.

Kāśīyātrā of Śrī Nārāyaṇapati Tripāṭhī. Karuṇāpati Tripāṭhī (ed.). (University-Silverjubilee-Granthamālā 16). Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 1991. [Reprint of edition 1908, also included in KKh 1991].

Kāśīyātrāprakāśa. Banāras: Chandraprabha Press, 1913.

The Kūrma Purāṇa. Anand Swarup Gupta (ed.). Varanasi: All-India Kashiraj Trust, 1971.

Liṅgapurāṇa
The Liṅga-Purāṇa. Translated by a Board of Scholars and edited. by J. L. Shastri. 2 vols. (Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology Series 5–6). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1973. [Reprinted 1982, 1990].
The Liṅga Purāṇa of Sage Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa, with Sanskrit Commentary Śivatoṣiṇī of Gaṇeśa Nātu (Containing Introd. in Sanskrit and English and an Alphabetical Index of Verses). J. L. Shastri (ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980.
Śrīliṅgamahāpurāṇam with Sanskrit commentary Śivatoṣiṇī by Gaṇeśa Nātu. Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1989. (Reprint of edition Bombay: Venkatesvara Steam Press 1906, with a Ślokānukramaṇī by Nāgaśaraṇa Siṃha). [2nd ed. 1996, 3rd ed. 2004].

Matsyapurāṇa
The Matsya Purāṇam. Jamna Das Akhtar (ed.). (Sacred Books of the Aryans 1). Delhi: Oriental Publishers, 1972.
Matsyamahāpurāṇam. Foreword by Horace Hayman Wilson. Arranged by Nagasarana Simha. Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1983.

Nāradapurāṇa
The Nārada-Purāṇa. Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare (ed.). 5 vols. (Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology Series 15–19). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1980-1982.
Nāradīyamahāpurāṇam. Kṣemarāja Śrīkṛṣṇadāsa (ed.). Bombay: Śrī Veṅkateśvara Sṭīm Mudraṇayantrālaye, V.S. 1962 [AD 1905]. (2nd ed. Bombay AD 1923/24). [Reprint, with an Introduction by Cārudeva Śāstrin, Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1984 (20023), Nāgaśaraṇasiṃhaślokānukramaṇyā sahitam].

Śrīpādmaṃ Mahāpurāṇam. Kṣemarāja Śrīkṛṣṇadāsa (ed.). 3 vols. Bombay: Śrī Veṅkateśvara Sṭīm Mudraṇayantrālaye, V.S. 1984 [AD 1927]. [Reprint Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1984, 3 vols. Vol. 4 Nāgaśaraṇasiṃhaślokānukramaṇyā sahitam.].

Śivapurāṇa
The Śiva-Purāṇa. Translated by a Board of Scholars. 4 vols. (Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology Series 1–4). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970.
Śrīśivamahāpurāṇam. Khemarāja Śrīkṛṣṇdāsena Veṅkateśvara-Sṭīma-Mudraṇālayataḥ prakāśitasya punarmūdranam, Nāgaśaraṇasiṃhasampādita-ślokānukramaṇyā sahitam. 2 vols. Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1986.

Skandapurāṇa
Śrīskāndamahāpurāṇam. Kṣemarāja Śrīkṛṣṇadāsa (ed.). 7 vols. Bombay: Śrī Veṅkateśvara Sṭīm Mudraṇālaye, V.S. 1967 [AD 1910]. [Reprint Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1986–89, 7 vols. Vol. 8: Nāgaśaraṇasiṃhaślokānukramaṇyā sahitam.].
Skandapurāṇasya Ambikākhaṇḍaḥ. Kṛṣṇaprasāda Bhaṭṭarāī (ed.). (Śrī 5 Mahendraratnagranthamālāyā dvitīyaṃ puṣpam). Kathmandu: Mahendrasaṃskṛtaviśvavidyālaya, 1988.
The Skandapurāṇa. Volume I. Adhyāyas 1B25. Critically edited with a Prolegomena and English Synopsis. Rob Adriaensen & Hans T. Bakker & Harunaga Isaacson (eds.). Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1998.
The Skandapurāṇa. Volume IIA. Adhyāyas 26–31.14. The Vārāṇasī Cycle. Critical Edition with an Introduction, English Synopsis & Philological and Historical Commentary. Hans T. Bakker & Harunaga Isaacson (eds.). Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 2004. [Electronic text at GRETIL - Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages, http://www.sub.uni-goettingen.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gretil/1_sanskr/3_purana/skp031pu.htm].

Tīrthacintāmaṇi of Vācaspati Miśra. Kamalakrishna Smrititirtha (ed.). (Bibliotheca Indica 195, New Series, No. 1256; 1274; 1297; 1349). Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1912.

Tīrthavivecanakāṇḍam. Bhaṭṭaśrīlaksṃīdharaviracite Kṛtyakalpatarau aṣṭamo bhāgaḥ. K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar (ed.). (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series 98). Baroda, 1942.

Tristhalīsetu
Tristhalīsetu of Nārāyaṇa Bhaṭṭa. Gaṇeśa Śāstrī Gokhale (ed.). (Ānandāśrama Sanskrit Series 78). Poona: Ānandāśramamudraṇālaya, 1915.
The Bridge to the Three Holy Cities. The Sāmānya-praghaṭṭaka of Nārāyaṇa Bhaṭṭa's Tristhālīsetu. Richard Salomon (ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1985.
Tristhalīsetu[sārasaṅgraha] by Bhaṭṭojidīkṣita; Tīrthenduśekhara by Nāgeśa Bhaṭṭa; Kāśī-mokṣavicāra by Sureśvarācārya. Sūryanārāyaṇa Śukla (ed.). Varanasi: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, 1997.

Pāṇḍeya, Kamalā. 1999. Rakṣata-gaṅgām (Gaṅgā-saptaśati). (Hindī bhāvānuvāda sahita). [Vārāṇasī]: Śrīmātā.

Sarasvatī, Daṇḍī Svāmī Śivānand. 1991. Kāśīpañckrośīmāhātmya. Vārāṇasī: Dharmasaṅgha.

— 1997. Kāśīmāhātmya. University-Silverjubilee-Granthamālā 23. Vārāṇasī: Sampurnananda Sanskrit University.

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9. Banaras in Hindi Literature

Golding, Paul R. 1997. Tales of Banaras. The Flowing Ganges. The Life and Lore of India's Sacred City on the Ganges. Translated from the Original Hindi of Rudra Kashikey, Pen Name of Shiv Prasad Mishra by Paul R. Golding with Virendra Singh. Delhi: Book Faith India.

Hansen, Kathryn. 1989. “The Birth of Hindi Drama in Banaras, 1868-1885”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 62-92.

King, Christopher R. 1989. “Forging a New Linguistic Identity: The Hindi Movement in Banaras, 1868-1914”. In: Sandria B. Freitag (ed.). Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press, 179-202.

Köckman, Uwe. 1993. “The Role of Educational Institutions in the Awakening of Hindu Nationalism in 19th Century Vārāṇasī”. In: Rana P. B. Singh (ed.). Banāras (Vārāṇasī). Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency, 289-296.

Sarasvatī, Daṇḍī Svāmī Śivānand. 1998. Kāśī gaurav (Kāśī kī pañcakrośī yātrā 'māhātmya' Kāśī kā itihās Kāśī māhātmya vartmān meṃ pracalit Vārāṇasī kī sampūrṇ yātrā). Vārāṇasī: Dharmasaṅgha. [In Hindi].

Siṃh, Kāśīnāth. 2002. Kāśī kā Assī. Nayī Dillī: Rājkamal Prakāśan.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1989. Where Cultural Symbols Meet. Literary Images of Varanasi. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

— 2004. Cultural Landscapes and the Lifeworld. Literary images of Banaras. Based on the Writings of Kabir, Tulasi, Mirza Ghalib, Bhartendu Harishchandra, Rudra Kashikeya, Bhishma Sahni, Raja Rao, Shivprasad Singh, Abdul Bismillah, Kashinath Singh, Pankaj Mishra. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series 6. Varanasi: Indica Books.

Sukul, Kuber Nath. 1977. Vārāṇasī-Vaibhāv. Paṭnā: Bihār-Rāṣṭrabhāṣā-Pariṣad. [In Hindi].

Vyās, Kedārnāth. 1986. Kāśīkhaṇḍokt pañckrośātmak jyotirliṅg kāśīmāhātmya evaṃ Kāśī kā prācīn itihās. Vārāṇasī.

Śrī Kāśī dhyān mālā. Śrī parabrahma parameśvarī ke bhakt kaivalya pad nivāsī guruṃ mahārāja kī apūrv kṛpā se kāśīkhaṇḍokta samast devī devatāoṃ kā dhyān kāśī yātrā vidhi sahit. Gaurīśaṃkar Dīkṣit (ed.). 2nd ed. Banāras: Hitacintak Press, 1929 (V.S.1986).

Pañcakrośa sudhā. Granthakāra Anantaśrīcaraṇa Śrī Devatīrtha (Kāṣṭhajihva Svāmī). Prakāśakaḥ Yogendra Nārāyaṇa Ṭhākur. Anuvādak evaṃ sampādak Ācārya Paṃ. Satyanārāyaṇa Śāstrī Khaṇḍūrī. 1997. Vārāṇasī: Sarvabhāratīy Kāśīrāj Nyās.

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